While the nuclear talks between Iran and world powers in Vienna are proceeding at a snail’s pace, satellite images from the Iranian Space Center were released on December 12, 2021, showing Iran preparing to launch a space launch vehicle (SLV) into space.1,2 The action may be intended as leverage to further pressure the West in the negotiations. It is widely suspected that Iran is seeking to connect its nuclear capabilities to launch vehicles for nuclear weapons. In response to a warning by Britain, France, and Germany (the “3E”) that the nuclear deal would soon become a “hollow shell,”3 Ali Bakri-Kani, who heads the Iranian team for talks, called for “real diplomacy” instead of “games of mutual accusations.”4
After Iran’s launch of a powerful new three-stage rocket, the Zuljanah space launch vehicle (SLV), in February 2021, Iranians claimed that the rocket could “loft a 500-pound payload as high as 310 miles.”5
According to a Forbes Magazine analysis, the Zuljanah rocket “is adequate to place a satellite in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and, for Iran, a big step forward for both its space program and its effort to develop delivery vehicles for possible future nuclear warheads.”7 The Zuljanah SLV was launched February 2021 and the Aerospace department of the Defense Ministry spokesman said that the SLV is equipped with “two stages of solid propulsion and one stage of liquid propulsion and is capable of carrying satellites weighing up to 220 kilograms in a 500-kilometer orbit.”8
A Space Launch Vehicle Is Not Just an SLV
Indeed, Iran Watch warns that “the systems that enable a space launch vehicle (SLV) to release a satellite at the right speed, in the right direction, and at the right time for it to enter orbit could also enable an ICBM to release its re-entry vehicle with a similar level of precision.” The U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency found that “the new Simorgh (Safir-2) SLV could be capable of ICBM ranges if configured as a ballistic missile.”10
The new satellite images were taken over the Imam Khomeini Space Center in northeastern Iran’s Semnan province, a desert area 150 miles (240 kilometers) from Tehran. The photos indicate considerable activity at the space terminal, which reinforces assessments that Iran is about to launch a new space launch vehicle (SLV). The Imam Khomeini Spaceport is a permanent satellite launch site where ballistic missiles were previously launched.
Despite several failed attempts, the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) Aerospace Force managed to launch for the first time a Noor-1 military satellite on April 22, 2020 on board an indigenous three-stage Qased SLV. General Jay Raymond, U.S. Space Command commander (SPACECOM) played down IRGC Commander’s boast of a “strategic achievement” and tweeted, “Iran states it has imaging capabilities — actually, it’s a tumbling webcam in space” that is unlikely providing anything resembling valuable intelligence.11 According to Iranian media reports, several new satellites meet the “final stages of preparation for launch,” including Venus 2, Chapar 2, and Fares 1.”12
On November 26, 2021, Iran’s Supreme Space Council meeting,13 chaired by President Ibrahim Raisi, was attended by the ministers of defense, communications and information technology, foreign affairs, and industry.14 Iranian media emphasized the fact, in an apparent slap at the government of outgoing President Rouhani, that the last council meeting took place 11 years ago. President Raisi stressed that space programs should be accelerated and that “the space program can resolutely stand against Iran’s enemies.”15
Issa Zare-Pur, Minister of Communications and Information Technology, stressed the need to “accelerate the growth of the space industry” and said he was surprised by the president’s pressing timetable for placing a satellite in space in a geocentric orbit at an altitude of 36,000 km within four years. He said Iran is currently conducting experiments to move a satellite from an altitude of 400 km to one of 10,000 km.
Iran has placed non-military satellites in space using a Safir-2 SLV launch rocket and tested in 2016 an updated modified version of the Simorgh rocket, based on a North Korean Taepodong design. In 2017, Iran launched a low-earth orbit (LEO) observation satellite. An attempt to deploy an advanced photography Payam satellite failed in January 2019 failed. In 2020, Iran was again unsuccessful in its launch of a Zafar satellite for environmental and agriculture monitoring using the Simorgh launch rocket.
The Iranian Ministry of Communications manages a satellite program for civilian needs with the assistance of the Ministry of Defense. At the same time, the Revolutionary Guards Aerospace Force is conducting an independent space program. The minister also called for a return to the approach used during President Ahmadinejad’s government and to speed up space programs.
The United States considers Iran’s satellite launches a violation of Security Council Resolution 2231, which was approved in July 2015. According to the resolution, Iran was “called upon” not to take any action involving ballistic missiles “designed to be capable of delivering nuclear weapons.” Iran’s space programs, which were “dormant” under Rouhani, were accelerated as Iran’s response to the U.S. exit from the nuclear deal.
The issue of Iran’s ballistic missile launches was mentioned in the 12th report of the UN Secretary-General (December 8, 2021) to the Security Council on the Implementation of Security Council Resolution 2231. Geraldine Byrne Nason (Ireland), Security Council Facilitator for the implementation of Resolution 2231, said France, Germany, Iran, Israel, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, and the United States provided information to the Secretary-General and the Security Council concerning a ballistic missile launch in May 2021 and two space launch vehicle tests in June 2021 by Iran. The Permanent Representatives of Israel and the United States noted that the two space launch vehicles incorporated technologies that were virtually identical to those used in ballistic missiles designed to be capable of carrying nuclear weapons. Geraldine Byrne Nason also said that the information circulated “reflects divergent views among those Member States as to whether those launches are inconsistent with paragraph 3 of resolution 2231 (2015).”
Iran, as usual, refuses to discuss any issue related to its ballistic missile program and threatens to leave if the issue comes up during the Vienna talks. During the recent discussion on the implementation of SCR 2231, Majid Takht-Ravanchi, Iran’s ambassador to the UN, reiterated Iran stance: “Launches by Iran of ballistic missiles and space vehicles are completely outside of the purview of resolution, as developing a conventional missile program is an inherent right under international law. The current Vienna talks can succeed,” he affirmed, “not by setting artificial deadlines or introducing threats, unfounded accusations or disinformation campaigns, but only by engaging in negotiations with genuine political will and in good faith.”16
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