The Jerusalem Center

The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs is a leading independent research institute specializing in public diplomacy and foreign policy.

Publications by The Jerusalem Center

Biographies of Participants and Speakers

Saad Amrani Saad Amrani is the Chief Commissioner of the Belgian Federal Police. He is a leading advocate in the European community’s fight against radicalization and ISIS and is in charge of securing European summits and other international high-level meetings, […] Read More »

Anti-Semitism in Canada

Lt. Col. (ret.) Jonathan D. Halevi is a senior researcher of the Middle East and radical Islam at the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Read More »

Is Iran Heading for a Collapse?
Implications for the Region and Israel

Implications for the Region and Israel Read More »

Jerusalem Center Israel at 70 Quiz #2

See also: Quiz #1 Read More »

Israel at 70: Test Your Knowledge!

A series of 10 quizzes created by the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs in honor of Israel’s 70th year of independence. Read More »

Jerusalem: The Renewed Diplomatic Struggle
over the City’s Future

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About the Authors

Dan Diker Dan Diker is a fellow and senior project director at the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. He is the author of BDS Unmasked and SJP Unmasked, and has edited several other policy books including Defensible Borders for Israel […] Read More »

Can the Relationship Between Israel and Europe Change?

After years of problematic relations between Europe and Israel, the Jerusalem Center of Public Affairs is trying to see if this situation can change Read More »

Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs: Action and Impact in Israel and around the World

Report on Jerusalem Center Projects, Social Media Campaigns, Analyses, Reports, and Conferences – in Israel and Internationally Read More »

Jerusalem Center Initiatives and Impact (2017)

A Unique Model of Applied Diplomacy The Jerusalem Center has developed a unique model of applied diplomacy, involving rapid responses to current events and challenges based on top-level research and expertise, tailoring an effective response to the issues to reach […] Read More »

The Struggle for Jerusalem in International Diplomacy

Amb. Dore Gold created a presentation of 3,000 years of Jewish history in Jerusalem, with the assistance of Israel’s state of the art multi-media technology. Read More »

In Memoriam – Harry C. Wechsler, Founder of the
Institute for Contemporary Affairs

Harry C. Wechsler Harry C. Wechsler has been a true friend of the Jerusalem Center for over fifteen years. When we first met him we sensed that he understood the deep crisis Israel was facing from those who sought to […] Read More »

Briefing for European Ambassadors on Israel’s Response to Terrorism

Dore Gold stressed the commonality of the European countries and Israel in facing the threat of jihadist terror. Read More »

From Time Immemorial –
The Everlasting Jewish Tie to the Land of Israel

Continuous Jewish presence in the Land of Israel throughout the past 2,000 years Read More »

Israel Celebrates 50th Anniversary of the Reunification of Jerusalem

Israel Celebrates 50th Anniversary of the Reunification of Jerusalem Read More »

New Poll: Survey of Israeli Jewish Attitudes on Future Peace Agreement

Decrease in support for a withdrawal from the West Bank and the establishment of a Palestinian state Read More »

Lessons from Israel’s Response to Terror –
Book Launch at Italian Chamber of Deputies

The President of the III Committee (Foreign and communitarian Affairs) of the Italian Chamber of Deputies invites to the seminar Israel and the Fight Against Terror: Suggestions for Europe On the occasion of the publishing of the book Lessons from […] Read More »

100 Years Since the Balfour Declaration: Legal Issues

Prof. Ruth Lapidoth, Prof. Nicholas Rostow, and Dr. Jacques Gauthier. Chair: David Horowitz Read More »

100 Years Since the Balfour Declaration: Diplomatic and Political Aspects

Amb. Daniel Taub, Brig. Gen. (res.) Yossi Kuperwasser, and Moshe Arens. Chair: Dan Diker. Read More »

About the Authors

Amb. Dore Gold Ambassador Dore Gold has served as President of the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs since 2000. From June 2015 until October 2016 he served as Director-General of the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Previously he served as […] Read More »

Timeline of World War I and the Balfour Declaration

June 28, 1914: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. Austro-Hungary declared war on Serbia in July; Russia allied with Serbia. Germany invaded Belgium, Luxembourg, and France. August 4, 1914: The United Kingdom declared war on Germany. November 1914: Ottoman […] Read More »

Iranian Official and Social Media Call for the
Destruction of Israel after the JCPOA

The signing of the nuclear agreement with Iran has not stopped its religious, political, and military establishment – and Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei – from propagating Israel’s destruction. Read More »

100 Years Since the Balfour Declaration – Jerusalem Center Resources

100 Years Since the Balfour Declaration Contents Conference Videos – February 28, 2017 Refuting Balfour Detractors at the House of Commons More Resources Conference Videos – February 28, 2017 Opening Remarks Amb. Dore Gold – President, Jerusalem Center for Public […] Read More »

Incentivizing Terrorism: Palestinian Authority Allocations to Terrorists and their Families

The PA’s allocations of benefits rewarding terrorists amount to $300 million annually. Read More »

A Life of Degradation and Bitterness under Fatah Rule

A letter from a West Bank Palestinian attorney Read More »

Radical Messages: Understanding the Rising Wave of Islamist Terror

ISIS, Muslim Brotherhood, Hamas. Why are there so many different radical Islamic groups? What do they have in common? And what do they ALL want to achieve? Read More »

Support the Daily Alert

Dore Gold: Where Can I Get the Latest News on Israel? Daily Alert is the work of a team of expert analysts who find the most important and timely articles from around the world on Israel, the Middle East and […] Read More »

Refund Policy

The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs and Center for Jewish Community Studies and all of our staff and researchers do our best to promote our programs/projects in an exceptional manner.  We appreciate each and every contribution made to our Center.  […] Read More »

Making the Case for Israel: The U.S. Presidential Elections, American Jewry, and Israel

Annual Memorial Lecture in honor of Professor Daniel J. Elazar, z“l,
Founding President of the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs Read More »

Refuting Balfour’s Detractors

The goal of the discussion was to emphasize that the return of the Jews to the Land of Israel began well before General Allenby marched into Jerusalem in December 1917. Read More »

Dore Gold Returns to Head the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs

Gold returns after serving as Director General of the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs Read More »

Palestinian Affairs

Jerusalem Center Initiatives and Impact (Summer-Fall 2016)

Click here to view the report. See report of Jerusalem Center Initiatives and Impact (Winter-Spring 2015-16). Read More »

Jerusalem Talks: Expert Analysis Podcast

Hear what Israel’s top experts in the fields of intelligence, security, international relations and diplomacy have to say about Israel and the complexities of the Middle East in the 21st century. Our podcast is available on the following platforms: iTunes […] Read More »

Sykes-Picot Agreement: The French Perspective

Dr. Richard Rossin, Former Head of the European Academy of Geopolitics, on the French historical perspective of Sykes-Picot’s legacy. Read More »

Sykes-Picot Conference: Welcome and Opening Remarks

Sykes Picot Conference opening remarks by Director General of the Jerusalem Center, Chaya Herskovic; Ambassador Freddy Eytan; and Dr. Michael Borchard of Konrad-Adenauer-Stifung Israel. Read More »

The Knife and the Message

Was this recent terror wave in Israel as random as it seemed?
Experts reveal a larger underlying political framework orchestrated by Palestinian leaders and fueled by incitement. It is “a plan to be unplanned.” Read More »

The Sunni-Shiite Split and the Iranian Threat

Prof. Bernard Lewis interviewed by Dan Diker (2009) Read More »

International Conference
“100 Years since the Sykes-Picot Agreement:
Lessons for the Middle East”

Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung – Jerusalem Center for Public AffairsJoint Conference 100 Years since the Sykes-Picot Agreement: Lessons for the Middle East May 18, 2016 – Inbal Hotel, Jerusalem Please note that attendance at the conference has reached maximum capacity,and registration has been […] Read More »

Jerusalem Center Initiatives and Impact (Winter-Spring 2015-16)

Click here to view the report. Read More »

About the Authors

Hirsh Goodman established the program on media strategy at the Institute for National Security Studies at Tel Aviv University. He was a former military correspondent for the Jerusalem Post, editor-in-chief of The Jerusalem Report and a strategic fellow at the […] Read More »

Luxury Alongside Poverty in the Palestinian Authority

Alongside the slums of the old refugee camps, a parallel Palestinian society is emerging. Read More »

Defensible Borders for Israel

Defensible Borders for Israel is a major security and public diplomacy initiative that analyzes current terror threats and Israel’s corresponding territorial requirements, particularly in the strategically vital West Bank that Israel must maintain to fulfill its existential security and defense […] Read More »

Combating Delegitimization and BDS

Combating Delegitimization and BDS is a major multilingual public diplomacy program exposing those forces that are questioning Israel’s very legitimacy, while carrying out initiatives to strengthen Israel’s fundamental right to security and to reinforce the connection between the Jewish people […] Read More »

The Iranian Nuclear Threat

Vital Points on the Iran Deal: Major Flaws and Positive Elements – Brig.-Gen. (res.) Yossi Kuperwasser and Amb. Alan Baker Questions and Answers about the Iranian Nuclear Agreement – Brig.-Gen. (res.) Yossi Kuperwasser Why We Must Fight Against the Iran […] Read More »

Killing Americans and their Allies: Iran’s Continuing War against the U.S. and the West

Tehran has used its weapons deliveries to fuel a number of regional insurgencies, like the Houthi revolt in Yemen. – Killing Americans and their Allies: Iran’s Continuing War. Read More »

Luxury Alongside Poverty in the Palestinian Authority

Alongside the slums of the old refugee camps, a parallel Palestinian society is emerging. Read More »

Book Reviews – Spring 2014, Volume 26, Numbers 1–2

Jon D. Levenson, Inheriting Abraham: The Legacy of the Patriarch in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012, 244 pp. Reviewed by Rivkah Fishman-Duker THE IDEA OF ABRAHAMIC RELIGION In recent years, the idea of Abrahamic religion has […] Read More »

The Gaza War 2014

Executive Summary The Gaza War 2014: The War Israel Did Not Want and the Disaster It Averted is a researched and documented narrative that relates the truth as it happened. Israel was the target of thousands of rockets and mortar […] Read More »

About the Authors

Hirsh Goodman established the program on media strategy at the Institute for National Security Studies at Tel Aviv University. He was a former military correspondent for the Jerusalem Post, editor-in-chief of The Jerusalem Report and a strategic fellow at the […] Read More »

100 Years Since the Balfour Declaration

Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung – Jerusalem Center for Public AffairsJoint Conference 100 Years Since the Balfour Declaration February 28, 2017 – Waldorf Astoria Hotel, Jerusalem Please note that attendance at the conference has reached maximum capacity,and registration has been closed. 100 Years Since […] Read More »

Leadership Program in Arab-Israel Studies

About the Program The leadership program is a high level, advanced academic program designed for the elite college bound student interested in the various issues surrounding the Israel-Arab conflict. It provides an intensive, demanding and often emotional immersion into the […] Read More »

The Assimilation of Tikkun Olam

Levi Cooper INTRODUCTION Tikkun olam is most commonly heard as a slogan for activism, political involvement and social justice. The term has had numerous lives, such that its endurance and malleability over time are truly impressive. It has been used […] Read More »

The Place of Tikkun Olam in American Jewish Life1

Jonathan Krasner INTRODUCTION The symbolic moment when the now ubiquitous phrase “tikkun olam” entered the American Jewish mainstream probably took place during the visit of Pope John Paul II to the United States in September 1987. A crisis in Vatican-Jewish […] Read More »

The Limits of Tikkun Olam: Questions and Answers*

Does the very act of positive ethical behavior automatically fall into the category of tikkun olam, and are there conditions where the term does not apply? Read More »

Book Reviews for JPSR Fall 2013, Volume 25, Numbers 3–4

Book Reviews Wolfgang G. Schwanitz, Islam in Europa, Revolten in Mittelost: Islamismus und Genozid von Wilhelm II. und Enver Pascha über Hitler und al-Husaini bis Arafat, Usama bin Ladin und Ahmadinejad sowie Gespräche mit Bernard Lewis [Islam in Europe, Revolts […] Read More »

Jewish Political Studies Review

The Resilience of Tikkun Olam Message from the Editor Joel Fishman Tikkun Olam, Israel and a Just World Order Dore Gold The Assimilation of Tikkun Olam Levi Cooper Tikkun Olam: A Case of Semantic Displacement Byron L. Sherwin The Place […] Read More »

Mending the World

To understand how the concept of tikkun olam arose, we have to travel back in time to one of the turning-points in Jewish history: the Spanish expulsion and its aftermath. Read More »

New Poll: 75% of Israeli Jews Oppose a Palestinian State on the 1967 Lines, Israeli Withdrawal from the Jordan Valley, and the Division of Jerusalem

Some 75% of Israeli Jews oppose the establishment of a Palestinian state if it means an Israeli withdrawal from the Jordan Valley. Read More »

Qatar’s Support of Hamas and Jihadist Forces in the Middle East

Qatar is unquestionably engaged in international terrorist financing. Read More »

Israel’s Decision to Declare 988 Acres of West Bank Territory as State Land

The area is in the least controversial of the settlement blocs. Read More »

Homeland Security Portal

Homeland Security Portal Homeland Security Portal   Area Studies:  Iran  –  Egypt  –  Syria   Terrorism  –  Nuclear and Non-Conventional Weapons   Israeli Strategy and Security  –  Regional Stability  –  Ethnic Conflict Area Studies: Iran Iran’s Fortunes Rising in a Middle East Vacuum Lt. Col. (ret.) Michael Segall, March 19, 2014 Iran is implementing […] Read More »

Subscribe to RSS Feed

You can copy and paste the following URL into your favorite RSS feed reader: Read More »

Israel’s Critical Requirements for Defensible Borders: The Foundation for a Secure Peace

President Obama has declared that “the borders of Israel and Palestine should be based on the 1967 lines with mutually agreed swaps, so that secure and recognized borders are established for both states.” But what are Israeli requirements for “secure” borders? This study, which has been updated to 2014, presents a comprehensive assessment of Israel’s critical requirements for defensible borders. Read More »

Israel’s Critical Requirements for Defensible Borders:
The Foundation for a Secure Peace

While there has been significant public discussion about Palestinian demands in the peace process, there has been little in-depth analysis of Israel’s rights and requirements. This study is intended to fill that vacuum, presenting a comprehensive assessment of Israel’s critical […] Read More »

About the Authors

About the Authors Lt.-Gen. (ret.) Moshe Yaalon is Israel’s Minister of Defense. This chapter was written when he served as Vice Prime Minister and Minister of Strategic Affairs. He served as IDF Chief of Staff in 2002-2005, during which time […] Read More »

Fatah Issues Threats against Egypt and Other Arab States

Fatah Issues Threats against Egypt and Arab States Read More »

U.S. Policy on Jerusalem

U.S. policy on Jerusalem has gone through different shifts. Back in 1948, the U.S. was originally committed to the failed internationalization proposals in UN General Assembly Resolution 181. This original position was quickly replaced in the 1950s by acceptance of […] Read More »

Future EU Sanctions Against Israel? Real, Imagined, and Somewhere in Between

Is the scenario of a full-scale EU boycott of Israel at all realistic? Read More »

Erekat Is Wrong: The Jewish Presence in the Land Dates Back for Millennia

Chief Palestinian negotiator Saeb Erekat claimed at the Munich Security Conference on Jan. 31 that the Palestinians cannot accept Israel as the Jewish state because they lived in the region long before the Jews. In the context of the current […] Read More »

Ethnic Conflict

Regional Stability

Israeli Strategy and Security

Nuclear and Non-Conventional Weapons





Area Studies:

The Jerusalem Center Experts Team

Ambassador Dore Gold has served as President of the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs since 2000. From June 2015 until October 2016 he served as Director-General of the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Previously he served as Foreign Policy Advisor […] Read More »

Battle for our Minds: Western Elites and the Terror Threat, by Michael Widlanski, Threshold Editions, Simon and Schuster

Battle for our Minds: Western Elites and the Terror Threat, by Michael Widlanski, Threshold Editions, Simon and Schuster. 373 pp. Reviewed by Lela Gilbert Western reactions to Islamist terror attacks inevitably range from disbelief to horror. Author Michael Widlanski knows […] Read More »

Documents in Chinese

  Defensible Borders in Chinese Israel Timeline in Chinese UN Security Council Resolution 242 Israel Jordan Armistice Agreement in Chinese     Read More »

Defensible Borders in Chinese

Dore Gold Speaking on CNN

Attack on the U.S. Marine Corps Barracks in Beirut

  Read More »

Why Israel Opposes International Forces in the Jordan Valley

Timeline of Main Events in The History of Israel

Timeline of Main Events in The History of Israel Read More »

For Students and Interns

For Students The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs is committed to helping students of Israel and Middle Eastern studies achieve their academic and career goals. You are invited to explore the wealth of material related to Israel’s security needs available […] Read More »

Charm Offensive? Hostile Iranian Messages on the Eve of Rouhani’s UN Visit

Vol. 13, No. 26    24 September 2013 With Iranian President Rouhani speaking at the UN in New York, it is useful to see the messages coming out of Tehran from an annual military parade held on Sept. 22, 2013. Significantly, […] Read More »

Learning about Israel? Resources for Teachers and Students

  Primary Source Material on Key Points in Israel’s History Israel’s Wars Major Knesset Debates (1948-1981) Robert Kennedy’s reports from Palestine in 1948   In-Depth Analysis of Israel’s Security and Diplomatic Challenges Israel’s case under international law Final-status issues: borders, […] Read More »

Signup To The Jerusalem Issue Briefs, Jerusalem Viewpoints And Daily Alert Emails

The Jerusalem Issue Briefs and  Jerusalem Viewpoints are concise high-level analysis and perspectives on key issues relating to Israel and the Middle East by leading government officials, military experts, and academics, published by the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Email: Name: […] Read More »

In the Media

Jerusalem Center experts are frequently quoted in the media: Analysis: Abbas’ Rejection of Israeli statehood and role has gone too far Dan Diker in World Israel News, December 17, 2017 “More countries not only willing, but eager to embrace Israel,” […] Read More »

Who Else Is Being Injured by the Vilification Of Israel?

Perspectives on Arab-Israeli Diplomacy

Perspectives on Arab-Israeli Diplomacy The current efforts of the Obama administration to renew Israeli-Palestinian peace talks come after years in which the two sides have not been engaged in any negotiations. This diplomatic hiatus has had an impact on the […] Read More »

Judea and Samaria: Challenges and Opportunities By Maj.-Gen. Nitzan Alon


Israeli Security



Peace Process

Middle East


International Law

Europe and Israel




World Jewry

U.S. Policy



Saudi Arabia





The Geography of Sino-Israeli Relations

The People’s Republic of China was formally founded in October 1949, only eleven months after the state of Israel. Although situated on opposite ends of the Asian continent, both nations began as poor, agrarian societies, early in their formation facing many similar challenges such as territorial threats. Read More »

The Jerusalem Day Quiz

The 28 Iyar marks the anniversary of the reunification of Jerusalem in the Six-Day War. In honor of the occasion, the Jerusalem Center invites you to take a short quiz about Jerusalem.
Read More »

Message from the Editor

With the publication of the Fall 2012 issue, the Jewish Political Studies Review is entering its twenty-fourth year of continuous publication. Read More »

Dore Gold Israel Hayom Articles

The Failure To Deter Genocide – May 8, 2015 Why Does The West Apologize To Iran? – April 24, 2015 Iran Takes Over Iraq – March 27, 2015 The World Moves Toward a Bad Deal – February 27, 2015 Can the West Rely on […] Read More »

Books by Dore Gold

Iran, Hizbullah, Hamas and the Global Jihad: A New Conflict Paradigm for the West Now radical Islam is gaining strength among the Palestinians with the victory of Hamas in the 2006 parliamentary elections of the Palestinian Authority. Hamas and its […] Read More »

Major Articles by Dore Gold

Below are a selection of Amb. Dore Gold major articles: Understanding the Current State of the Iranian Nuclear Challenge  U.S. Policy toward Israel in the Peace Process: Negating the 1967 Lines and Supporting Defensible Borders The Myth of Israel as […] Read More »

International Law

Over 150 articles focusing on international law pertaining to Israel and the Middle East Read More »

Arab Spring and Middle East WMDFZ at the 2013 Carnegie International Nuclear Policy Conference

Arab Spring and Middle East WMDFZ   Click here to listen   Event Panel April 9, 2013 Washington, DC, Ronald Reagan Building International Trade Center, Amphitheater   The 2010 NPT Review Conference Action Plan endorsed the convening in 2012 of a […] Read More »

Jerusalem Center at Harvard Law School PON

On-Line Treasures of the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs

Learn about the incredible resources of the Jerusalem Center Read More »

Jewish Political Studies Review

About Research Areas Subscribe Back Issues Special Issues Article Subjects Advance Publication: Volume 29, Numbers 3–4 Freedom Denied: A Firsthand Look at Kurdistan’s Referendum Debacle, One Year On by Zach Huff No Arab Demographic Time Bomb by Amb. Yoram Ettinger […] Read More »

JPSR Articles by Subject

About   Research Areas   Subscribe   Back Issues   Special Issues   Article Subjects    A Sampling of Jewish Political Studies Review Articles Europe and Israel     International Anti-Semitism and Anti-Zionism  Israeli-Palestinian Conflict      Arab World       Israeli International Relations Israeli National Identity      American Jewish Community  […] Read More »

About the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs

See also: Annual Report 2017: Jerusalem Center Action and Impact Jerusalem Center Initiatives and Impact (2017) The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs is a leading independent research institute specializing in public diplomacy and foreign policy. Founded in 1976, the Center […] Read More »

International Law – by Category

Israel’s Basic Rights Ten False Assumptions Regarding Israel Amb. Alan Baker, August 15, 2016 Israel is inundated with one-sided international resolutions, declarations, “peace plans,” and advice from governments, international organizations, leaders, pundits, and elements within the Jewish, Christian and Muslim […] Read More »

International Law

International Humanitarian Law International Courts and Universal Jurisdiction Israel’s Basic Rights Counter-Terrorism Jerusalem Occupation Gaza: Wars, Flotilla, Blockade Palestinian Statehood Deligitimizing Israel Borders and Boundaries Refugees Settlements See also Human Rights and International Law in the Middle East –   […] Read More »

UN Conference: Incitement to Terror and Violence – New Challenges, New Responses. Part 1

Yehuda Avner on Israeli Prime Ministers and U.S. Presidents

Negotiations by Other Means:

EVENT DATE: MONDAY MARCH 4, 2013    TIME: 7:00 P.M. LOCATION: POUND HALL 101, HARVARD LAW SCHOOL The Program on Negotiation’s Middle East Negotiation Initiative is pleased to present Negotiations by Other Means:Track II, Unilateral Action, Robust Third Party Role […] Read More »

Take an Interactive Tour of Jerusalem

We invite you to expand your knowledge of Jerusalem by navigating through our panoramic image of the city. Read More »

Being Jewish in China:The Current Situation of the Kaifeng Jews by Gideon Elazar

eBooks on Israeli Security and Diplomacy

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Daily Alert

Subscribe to Daily Alert – Subscribe to Jerusalem Issue Brief Read More »

Defensible Borders in a Changing Middle East

Dennis Ross at Jerusalem Center Conference

Resources on Israeli Security and Diplomacy

Views of the Israeli Public on Israeli Security and Resolution of the Arab-Israeli Conflict – 19 Dec 2012

83% of Israeli Jews believe that a withdrawal to the 1967 lines and a division of Jerusalem would not bring about an end of the conflict. Read More »

Indivisible Jerusalem

The next step in Israel-Hamas ceasefire – Dore Gold on Fox News

International Background to Hamas’ Escalation Against Israel

Hamas, with massive aid from Iran, doubled its rocket arsenal since 2009 and acquired the Iranian Fajr-5 rocket, putting Tel Aviv in striking distance. Read More »

Europe and Israel: a New Paradigm
March 24, 2014, Inbal Hotel, Jerusalem

Conference is now fully booked  8:30 am – 9:00 am: Registration 9:00 am – 9:10 am: Greeting Amb. Dore Gold  President of the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs State Secretary (ret.) Michael Mertes  Director, Israel Office of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation 9:10 […] Read More »

The Smarter Bomb: Women and Children as Suicide Bombers

What Israel Has Learned about Security:
Nine IDF Officers Discuss Israel’s Security Challenges

What Israel Has Learned about Securit Read More »

Israel’s Legal Case: A Guidebook

This volume by recognized experts from Israel and abroad outlines Israel’s legal case on key issues of international law. As questions are raised over the legitimacy and morality of Israel’s actions, the authors in this volume see Israel’s actions as […] Read More »

Israel’s Right to Self-Defense: International Law and Gaza

This volume provides a review of Israel’s unprecedented and careful consideration of questions of international law when forced to go to war to defend its civilian population from attack, with a particular focus on the Gaza war of 2008-2009. It […] Read More »

On Anti-Zionism and Anti-Israelism

Beyond Radical Libertarianism: Internet Freedom and the Rule of Law

eBook Library

Major studies by leading Jerusalem Center experts in eBook format. Read More »

Examining a Non-Centralized Religoethnic Community

American Jewry shares the long-standing American commitment to noncentralized decision-making. Decision-making in the United States is not decentralized but noncentralized. That is, there is no single center that can determine how or where decision-making should be dispersed, as the notion of decentralization implies. Rather, there are many different centers of decision-making, each of which exists legitimately in its own right, while the existence of each is protected within the society in some “constitutional” way. In political life even the federal government, powerful as it is, is simply one center ? some would even describe it as a cluster of centers ? among many.
Read More »

Jerusalem: Correcting the International Discourse
How the West Gets Jerusalem Wrong

The Holy City of Jerusalem is one of the most contentious facets of the Arab-Israel conflict. In this volume, Nadav Shragai, who served as a journalist and commentator at Ha’aretz between 1983 and 2009 and has documented the dispute over Jerusalem for thirty years, offers a fresh perspective that seeks to correct the international discourse on the future of the city. Read More »

Iran: From Regional Challenge
to Global Threat

This anthology of 31 recent studies by eleven leading security and diplomatic experts outlines the Iranian threat to Israel, the Middle East region, and the West. Read More »

November 29, 1947 Israel Quiz

Test your knowledge.
Take the quiz. Read More »

eBook Library

Major studies by leading Jerusalem Center experts in eBook format. Read More »

Global Law Forum

Syria and the Decline of the UN

Israel must internalize the change in the U.N.’s status the next time a U.N. official decides to issue another politicized “condemnation” about its actions. Read More »

JPSR: Back Issues

About      Research Areas      Subscribe      Back Issues      Special Issues      Article Subjects   Volume 26, Numbers 1–2 (Spring 2014) Message from the Editor The Jewish Nation-State Bill: Is There a Contradiction between  Judaism and Democracy? By Dr. Joel […] Read More »

Books and eBooks

Amnon Lord on The Crisis of Zionism by Peter Beinart

Identities, Pluralism, and Israel-Diaspora Relations: A Pragmatic Perspective on the Jewish Public Square

Strengthening Jewish identity in Israel and the diaspora are different challenges, requiring dissimilar approaches. In the diaspora, the continued development of a category of “sociological” Jews alongside halakhic Jews seems unavoidable. Increasing mixed marriages are the dominant factor at its base. Read More »


Terrorist Incidents against Jewish Communities and Israeli Citizens Abroad, 1968-2010 – Michael Whine Anti-Israeli Bias in the European Parliament and Other European Union Institutions – Interview with Rijk van Dam Anti-Semitism: Integral to European Culture – Manfred Gerstenfeld European Anti-Americanism […] Read More »


Anti-Israeli Activity at Concordia University 2000-2003 – Corinne Berzon Anti-Semitism in Canada – Manuel Prutschi Anti-Zionism and the Churches: The Canadian Scene – Paul C. Merkley Canadian Jews and Multiculturalism: Myths and Realities – Michael Brown Canadian Jewry Today: Portrait […] Read More »


Academic Anti-Zionism in Australia – Ted Lapkin A Distant Affinity: The History of Australian-Israeli Relations – Colin Rubenstein and Tzvi Fleischer Confronting Reality: Anti-Semitism in Australia Today – Jeremy Jones Israel in the Australian Media – Tzvi Fleischer Muslim-Jewish Relations in Australia: […] Read More »


China China’s Interaction with Israel and the Jewish People – Interview with Shalom Salomon Wald The U.S. Role in Delaying Sino-Israeli Relations: Two’s Company, Three’s a Crowd – Yitzhak Shichor India The Jews, Israel, and India – Interview with Nathan […] Read More »


Uganda Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin by Arye Oded Kenya Jomo Kenyatta and Israel by Asher Naim Libya The Final Exodus of the Libyan Jews in 1967 by Maurice Roumani Read More »

Global Jewish Affairs: Country Index

Africa  Asia Australia Canada  Europe Ex-Communist Countries France Germany Italy  Northern Europe  Other European Countries  Switzerland The Islamic World The Netherlands United Kingdom and Ireland  United States Read More »

Global Jewish Affairs: Books

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From Toulouse to Cairo

They would, in effect, be strengthening the movements that are currently undermining their internal security most directly. Read More »

Will Israel seek military solution to Iranian threat?

Israel’s Critical Security Needs for a Viable Peace

Poll: 77 Percent of Israelis See Iran Nukes as Existential Threat

77% of Israelis see a nuclear Iran as an existential threat to Israel. Read More »

Syria-Israel Relations

Dr. Dore Gold discusses the Iranian threat on Fox News. 8.3.12

Key People

Ambassador Dore Gold is President of the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs.In June 2015, Dore Gold left the Jerusalem Center, which he had led since 2000, to serve as Director General of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, appointed by Prime […] Read More »

Dore Gold on Iran’s Expanding Uranium Enrichment

Dore Gold discusses Iran’s expanding uranium enrichment in the underground bunker at Fordow, Fox News, Feb. 23, 2012 Read More »

Our Building – A Protected Jerusalem Landmark

A protected Jerusalem landmark, the home of the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs is located in Beit Milken at the corner of Rachel Emeinu and Tel Hai Streets, directly across from the Greek Consulate in the Greek Colony. Built in […] Read More »

eBook Library

Israel’s Legal Case: A Guidebook This volume outlines how Israel’s actions are firmly rooted in international law. Recognized experts discuss “occupation,” “apartheid,” and “colonialism,” as well as the legal status of Israeli settlements, the West Bank security fence, and Israel’s […] Read More »

Jerusalem Issue Briefs

Presentations by top-level political and military experts for the diplomatic corps and the foreign press, published through the Institute for Contemporary Affairs. Read More »

Institute for Contemporary Affairs

The Institute for Contemporary Affairs (ICA) was founded by the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs jointly with the Wechsler Family Foundation in 2001. The Institute provides a forum for discussion of Israel’s strategic, diplomatic, legal and national security challenges. Read More »

Israel’s Rights as a Nation-State in
International Diplomacy

This book explains clearly why the Jewish people deserve a state of their own and refutes all the major claims against Israel’s rights. Read More »

Israeli Minister of Finance on the Success of the Israeli Economy during the Global Downturn

Israel’s economy has performed remarkably well in the downturn of the global financial market. Minister of Finance Yuval Steinitz explains that Israeli business owners were given more confidence to invest and expand because of a two-year budget that was future-oriented. […] Read More »

ד”ר דורי גולד מתראיין בנושא העימות עם גולדסטון

ד”ר דורי גולד שיהיה הנציג הישראלי הראשון שמתעמת עם השופט גולדסטון מתראיין לתכניתו של אריה גולן, “הבוקר הזה” ומספר קצת על מה שצפוי לקרות Read More »


of the Israeli Economy The Application of Environmental Finance in the Israeli Setting: The Yarqon River as a Case Study This volume, the ninth in a series on aspects of privatization in Israel, focuses on ways to finance projects that […] Read More »


  The Application of Environmental Finance in the Israeli Setting: The Yarqon River as a Case Study     This volume, the ninth in a series on aspects of privatization in Israel, focuses on ways to finance projects that improve […] Read More »


  The Application of Environmental Finance in the Israeli Setting: The Yarqon River as a Case Study     This volume, the ninth in a series on aspects of privatization in Israel, focuses on ways to finance projects that improve […] Read More »


 The Application of Environmental Finance in the Israeli Setting: The Yarqon River as a Case Study   This volume, the ninth in a series on aspects of privatization in Israel, focuses on ways to finance projects that improve the quality […] Read More »

Consensus on Defensible Borders and a United Jerusalem

At a conference at the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, former Ambassador to the United Nations Dore Gold argued that at the heart of the Israeli-Arab conflict lies the necessity for defensible borders for Israel and a united Jerusalem under […] Read More »

Daily Alert

Daily Alert is the work of a team of expert analysts who find the most important and timely articles from around the world on Israel, the Middle East and U.S. policy.

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Wary of the Muslim Brotherhood

What the Saudi reaction to the Muslim Brotherhood illustrates is that the Islamic trend in the Arab world today cannot be painted with one brush, and that under the surface there are deep rivalries and differences between the Muslim Brotherhood and states that until recently were their closest allies. Read More »

Jerusalem in International Diplomacy

Analyzing the legal and historic rights of Israel in Jerusalem and the security threats of the potential division of Israel’s capital. Read More »

What Readers Say About Daily Alert

Daily Alert was established in May 2002 by the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations (, the roof organization for the 6-million strong Jewish community in North America. The material that appears Monday through Friday is carefully selected […] Read More »

Hizbullah Discusses Its Operational Plan for War with Israel

Vol. 11, No. 18    2 November 2011  Shimon Shapira   In recent weeks Hizbullah leader Hasan Nasrallah held a series of meetings with his top-level military command as well as field commanders responsible for preparing for war with Israel. According to […] Read More »

Newspaper Coverage of the Six-Day War

The 1967 Six-Day War changed the face of the Middle East and continues to influence international policy toward Israel. Read More »

The Challenge of the UN Gaza Report

On Thursday, November 5, 2009, Amb. Dore Gold and Judge Richard Goldstone discussed the UN report on Gaza war crimes. Read More »

Talking Points: Claims & Responses

Learn how to respond to some of the common claims against Israel: Jerusalem Occupation Gaza Blockade Land for Peace Multinational Peacekeepers’ Ability to Contain Terrorism Read More »

Maps and Graphs

The Jerusalem Center has produced an extensive collection of maps relating to the Middle East. To have access to any of these without a watermark please contact with the details of your request.   Read More »

Les besoins sécuritaires d’Israël

Cette vidéo est éloquente. A la veille des pourparlers de paix, elle offre concrètement tous les besoins sécuritaires de l’Etat d’Israel. Elle souligne les enjeux géopolitiques et stratégiques face aux menaces existentielles et explique pourquoi l’Etat juif devrait se doter […] Read More »

Israel’s Critical Security Needs for a Viable Peace – Abridged

 Israel, in any future agreement with the Palestinians, has a critical need for defensible borders. This video is an abridged version of a lengthier clip outlining Israeli security threats. Read More »

Video: Counterterrorism Analysis – A counterterrorism strategy must include reducing the motivation and the operational capability of terrorists. The Bush and Obama Administration have both failed in their own way to address both parts of the equation, he said. Additionally, boosting moderate […] Read More »

Jerusalem: 4000 Years in 5 Minutes

Jerusalem, a mosaic of different peoples, faiths, and nationalities. Nevertheless, despite this diversity, under the sovereignty of Israel, Jerusalem is a city that works. But has it always been this way? Read More »

Prof. Emmanuel Sivan – Da’wa and Jihad

Elhanan Yakira – What is Anti-Israelism?

Hebrew university Professor of Philosophy Elhanan Yakira defines anti-Israelism. A session of the November 8 2011 conference co-sponsored by the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs and the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung ion Incitement to Terror and Violence–New Challenges , New Responses Read More »

Yoni Ben-Menachem – Global Incitement via the Web and Other Communication Technologies

General director of Israel’s Broadcasting authority discusses global incitement. A session of the November 8 2011 conference co-sponsored by the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs and the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung ion Incitement to Terror and Violence–New Challenges , New Responses Read More »

Michael Mertes – Beyond Radical Libertarianism: Internet Freedom and the Rule of Law

State secretary (ret) and Director of the Israel office of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation discusses Internet Freedom. Part of the November 8 2011 conference co-sponsored by the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs and the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung on Incitement to […] Read More »

Special Reports

Comprehensive reports of issues confronting Israel and the Middle East. Read More »


Overview 2007-2008: Another Year of Global Academic Anti-Semitism and Anti-Israelism – Manfred Gerstenfeld Academics Against Israel and the Jews – Manfred Gerstenfeld European Universities and the New Anti-Semitism: Issues, Examples, Prescriptions – Aryeh Green Recent Developments on the Academic Boycott: […] Read More »

International Law

The International Law program aims to revitalize public discourse concerning Israel and the Middle East by explaining international law dimensions of current regional controversies. Read More »

eBook Review Copies

Book reviewers are welcome to download review copies of these new Jerusalem Center eBooks at no charge using the links on this page. Israel’s Legal Case: A Guidebook Israel’s Right of Self-Defense: International Law and Gaza What Israel Has Learned […] Read More »

About the Jerusalem Center

The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs is a leading independent research institute specializing in public diplomacy and foreign policy. Founded in 1976, the Center has produced hundreds of studies and initiatives by leading experts on a wide range of strategic […] Read More »

Institute for Global Jewish Affairs

The Institute for Global Jewish Affairs, established in 2008, includes the Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism Project as well as Changing Jewish Communities. Read More »

Jerusalem Viewpoints

Bimonthly, in-depth reports and analysis on changing events in Israel, the Middle East, and the Jewish world. Read More »

Dore Gold Articles

Articles by Jerusalem Center President Dr. Dore Gold. Dr. Gold was the eleventh Permanent Representative of Israel to the United Nations (1997-1999). Read More »

Jewish Political Studies Review

The Jewish Political Studies Review is dedicated to the study of Jewish political institutions, Jewish political thought, and public affairs. Read More »

Gaza Fact-Finding Mission: Responses to the Goldstone Report

On September 15, 2009, the Gaza Fact-Finding Mission, headed by Justice Goldstone, released a 575-page report in which it analyzed the military actions during Operation Cast Lead, also known as the Israel-Gaza war of December-January 2008-2009. The report has been criticized as being one-sided, out of context, and unprofessional. Presented here are studies which address both the report and Israeli actions in Gaza. In addition, critical, introspective editorials and selected news articles are offered.

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International Law – Media Perspectives : International Law

Ready, Aim, Seek Legal Council 09/09/2010 Ariella Ringel Hoffman  |  International Law In ongoing aftermath of Goldstone report, IDF assigns brigade commanders in field media advisors, humanitarian aid officers. Four generals give their perspectives, discuss media war embroiling Israel. View […] Read More »

International Law – Media Perspectives : Gaza Flotillas

IDF General: ‘No Justification for Gaza Aid Flotilla’ 31/08/2010 Anshel Pfeffer  |  Gaza Flotillas IDF Maj. Gen. Eitan Dangot tells Turkel Committee that Gazans have the goods needed to maintain basic lifestyle; says flotilla was intended to strengthen Hamas, not […] Read More »

International Law – Media Perspectives: International Committee of the Red Cross

The International Red Cross’ War Against Israel 23/08/2009 Moshe Dann  |  International Committee of the Red Cross The ICRC condemned IDF actions to stop terrorism in Jenin, Lebanon, and Gaza as “massacres.” They have consistently condemned Israel for “violations of […] Read More »

International Law – Media Perspectives: Incitement to Genocide

Lawyers to Use Genocide Convention in Iran Challenge 17/08/2009 Matthew Kalman  |  Incitement to Genocide60 prominent international lawyers led by a former Canadian justice minister have called for Iran to face international punishment for incitement to genocide – a breach […] Read More »

International Law – Media Perspectives: Illegal Construction

  Dore Gold: Diplomatic dispute obscures help to U.S. military 23/03/2010 Dore Gold  |  Illegal ConstructionPrime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu was right to speak about U.S.-Israeli strategic ties during his speech at Tuesday’s AIPAC conference. During the recent bilateral tensions between […] Read More »

International Law – Media Perspectives: Human Rights

Palestinians in the Arab World: Why the Silence? 20/07/2010 Khaled Abu Toameh  |  Human RightsWhen was the last time the United Nations Security Council met to condemn an Arab government for its mistreatment of Palestinians? How come groups and individuals […] Read More »

International Law – Media Perspectives: How Israel Is Guided by International Law

OECD members vote unanimously to invite Israel to join 11/05/2010 BBC  |  How Israel Is Guided by International Law Members of the group of rich nations, the OECD, have voted unanimously to invite Israel to join, despite Palestinian objections. Joining […] Read More »

International Law – Media Perspectives : Gaza Fact-Finding Mission

Goldstone committee head denies bias 27/07/2010 Benjamin Weinthal  |  Gaza Fact-Finding Mission The chairman of the UN committee responsible for following up on the findings of the Goldstone Report on Operation Cast Lead acknowledged on Saturday that he had helped […] Read More »

International Law – Media Perspectives : Gaza

Isarel, Gaza Tensions: Why Egypt Helps Maintain the Blockade 02/04/2010 Kristen Chick  |  Gaza – Simmering tensions – due in part to a long-standing blockade of the territory – are escalating toward another Israel Gaza standoff. Often overlooked is Egypt’s […] Read More »

International Law – Media Perspectives : Apartheid

The Hidden Agenda Behind “Israel Apartheid Week” 06/03/2010 Dore Gold  |  ApartheidWhat underlies the Israel Apartheid Week campaign is a highly politicized interpretation of Israel’s history. When the League of Nations decided to recognize the Jewish claim to a national […] Read More »

International Law – Media Perspectives : “Occupation”

Lebanon to UN: Israel will suffer consequences if our ships are attacked 22/06/2010 Ha’aretz  |  “Occupation” Obama, Abdullah push proximity talks 13/04/2010 Hilary Leila Krieger  |  “Occupation” Arab official: US plan can’t be proposed in a vacuum, timing crucial. View […] Read More »

Useful Links

Research Institutes Heritage Foundation Daniel Pipes CATO Institute Council on Foreign Relations Anti-Defamation League RAND Corporation American Enterprise Institute Center for American Progress Middle East Media Research Institue (MEMRI) Brookings Institution Middle East Forum Center for Strategic and International Studies Washington […] Read More »

Israel at 60: Confronting the Rising Challenge to Its Historical and Legal Rights

This conference, held on March 26, 2008, engaged in a critical examination of the debate on Israel’s legitimacy, and the rights of a Jewish nation-state and Jewish self-determination among other nation-states of the world and other nations’ claims to self-determination. Read More »

Iran’s Race for Regional Supremacy: Strategic Implications for the Middle East

Iran has accelerated its quest for regional supremacy through its mobilization of both Shiite and Sunni terror surrogates, including Hizbullah in Lebanon, Shiite militias in Iraq and in the Gulf, the Taliban in Afghanistan, and Hamas, Islamic Jihad, and the Al Aksa Martyrs’ Brigades in the Palestinian territories. This pivotal Iranian role has unfortunately not been fully appreciated, and even downplayed in certain quarters. Read More »

Major Knesset Debates 1948-1981

A translation of the major Knesset debates dealing with the critical issues in Israel’s history from 1948 to 1981 in this classic six-volume work. Read More »

Israels Rights as a Nation State in International Diplomacy: Introduction

A concerted campaign is being waged against Israel to question its very legitimacy in virtually every aspect of its historical, political, and cultural life, with the aim of undermining the very foundations of Israel’s existence. Read More »

Turkish Prime Minister Erdogan Contradicts Ottoman Sultan on Rachel’s Tomb

Erdogan’s statement contradicts firmans (deeds of rights) issued by the Ottoman authorities in Turkey recognizing Jewish rights at Rachel’s Tomb. Read More »

Jerusalem Studies

Reports, analyses and discussion of the challenges facing Jerusalem. Read More »

Internships at the Jerusalem Center

The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, an organization fighting Israel’s war of ideas since 1976, invites applications for its student internship program. Read More »

Newspaper of War


Email Confirmed

Welcome to The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Thank you for confirming your email address with us.   Read More »

Thank You for Subscribing

Thank you for subscribing to The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs newsletter. Please click the verification link which has been sent to your inbox to continue. It should arrive shortly. If you do not see it please check your spam […] Read More »

The Islamist Factor in Post-Gaddafi Libya: Will Libya Become “Libyastan”?

The U.S. and the West’s military intervention in Libya finally succeeded in toppling Gaddafi’s 42- year reign in Libya and brought to power an amorphous body called the NTC (National Transitional Council) headed by Mostafa Abdel Jalil, headed by a […] Read More »


Audio Archive

Click on the title to hear the audio clip: (Or visit our YouTube channel) Arab Spring and Middle East WMDFZ (APRIL 9, 2013) Briefing by Maj.-Gen. (res.) Dr. Yom Tov Samiah: “Weapons Smuggling from Egypt to Gaza: What Can Israel […] Read More »

Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism

The Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism publication, initiated and directed by Dr. Manfred Gerstenfeld, includes conferences, research, lectures, interviews, and essays in English and French. Read More »

International Law

The Global Law Forum at the Jerusalem Center of Public Affairs was established to revitalize public discourse concerning Israel and the Middle East by producing up-to-date materials explaining international law dimensions of current regional controversies, and to enrich the study […] Read More »

Hizbullah’s Veneration of Iranian Leader Ali Khamenei

Iranian leader Khamenei is the model individual for the Hizbullah movement in Lebanon. He has been Hizbullah’s source of religious and political authority since succeeding Ayatollah Khomeini in 1989. Read More »

A UN Resolution to Recognize a Palestinian State within the “1967 Borders” Would Be Illegal

The following is a letter drafted jointly by lawyers of the Legal Forum for Israel and by Amb. Alan Baker, Director of the Institute for Contemporary Affairs at the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Read More »

Economic Development in Israel

The Milken Institute’s Israel Center helps accelerate the nation’s path toward economic independence and broad-based prosperity. Read More »

From the Editors

Jewish Political Studies Review 23:1-2 (Spring 2011) This issue begins with an essay by Dexter Van Zile in which he analyzes one of the major sources of anti-Zionist aggression in mainstream Protestant churches – the Sabeel Ecumenical Liberation Theology Center […] Read More »

The Daniel Elazar On-Line Library

The writings of Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs founder, Daniel Elazar. The Daniel Elazar On-Line Library offers full-text versions of many of his writings, as a lasting memorial to the ideas he pioneered. Read More »

Jewish Environmental Studies

A sampling of materials from Jewish environmental studies: Judaism and environmental issues. Jewish environmental history, Jewish environmental law, the environment in the Hebrew Bible. Read More »

Changing Jewish Communities

Investigating recent developments in Jewish communities worldwide. Read More »

Israel at War: Primary Sources

Perspectives on Israel at war – from the War of Independence to the Gaza War of 2012 – from those writing at the time, the primary sources of history. Read More »

Special Features

Test your knowledge through Jerusalem Center quizzes; look through maps and read newspapers from the Six-Day War. Read More »

Survey of Arab Affairs

The Survey of Arab Affairs appeared between August 1985 and May 1996. Read More »

Jerusalem Letter

The Jerusalem Letter series, analyzing issues of Jewish and Israeli public policy, first appeared in December 1977. It was combined with the Jerusalem Viewpoints series beginning in February 1992. Read More »

Thank you for your registration

Thank you for your interest in attending the conference, “Europe and Israel: a New Paradigm” on March 24, 2014,  at the Inbal Hotel, Jerusalem.  We will be responding to your request shortly. Read More »

International Framework Documents on Combating Anti-Semitism: Berlin Declaration, FRA Working Definition of Anti-Semitism

Ottawa and London Interparliamentarian Statements, Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s Speech at Ottawa Conference Read More »


Confronting Holocaust History: The Bergier Commission’s Research on Switzerland’s Past – Helen B. Junz Is There a Future for Jews in Switzerland? – Simon Erlanger Muslims and Jews in Switzerland – Simon Erlanger Real, Imaginary, and Symbolic Roles of Jews […] Read More »

Other European Countries

 Austria Austria, the Jews, and Anti-Semitism: Ambivalence and Ambiguity – Interview with Karl Pfeifer On the Situation in Austrian Universities – Ruth Contreras   Belgium Anti-Zionism in Belgium – The Country’s Civil Religion that Reflects the New Anti-Semitism – Interview with […] Read More »

Northern Europe

Denmark Anti-Semitism after the Holocaust – Also in Denmark – Arthur Arnheim Rescue, Expulsion, and Collaboration: Denmark’s Difficulties with its World War II Past – Vilhjálmur Örn Vilhjálmsson and Blüdnikow  Finland Finland’s Tarnished Holocaust Record – Interview with Serah Beizer Iceland […] Read More »


Jewish Displaced Persons in Postwar Italy, 1945-1951 by Susanna Kokkonen Neo Anti-Semitism in Today’s Italy – Sergio I. Minerbi The Cynical Use of Israel in Italian Politics – Interview with Fiamma Nirenstein The Paradox of the Italian Jewish Experience in 1990-2010 […] Read More »


A New (or Perhaps Revived) “Uninhibitedness” toward Jews in Germany – Andrei Markovits Anti-Semitism In Germany Today: Its Roots And Tendencies – Susanne Urban Being Leftist and Anti-Semitic in Germany – Susanne Urban Current Anti-Semitism in East Germany – Thomas Haury “New” […] Read More »


An American Watching Anti-Israeli Bias in France – Interview with Nidra Poller An Invented Attack Leads to Decreasing Condemnation of Anti-Semitism in France: A Case Study – Yohanan Winogradsky  Fifty Years of French Intellectual Bias against Israel – Interview with Simon Epstein […] Read More »

Ex-Communist Countries

General Anti-Semitic Trends In Post-Communist Eastern European States – An Overview – Yosef Govrin Anti-Semitism in the Post-Soviet States – Betsy Gidwitz Eastern Europe: Anti-Semitism in the Wake of Holocaust-Related Issues – Efraim Zuroff Post-Soviet Jewry: Critical Issues – Betsy Gidwitz […] Read More »

E-Book Review Copies

What Israel Has Learned about Security: Nine IDF Officers Discuss by The Jerusalem Center Some of Israel’s top military leaders in recent years have used the unique public platform provided by the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs to present their […] Read More »

Strategic Perspectives

From the Editors

Jewish Political Studies Review 22:3-4 (Fall 2010)    This issue opens with an essay by Laurence Weinbaum about the forgotten Polish Jewish historian Ruben Feldschu. Only fragments of his diary written in the Warsaw Ghetto, which contains more than eight […] Read More »


The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, is involved with organizing conferences. Within this section you will discover articles related to some of our past conferences. Read More »

American Jewry’s Comfort Level: Present and Future

The battle for the future of a vibrant American Jewry begins with understanding the present better and continues with assessing what the future might bring. The need to develop tools to understand faster the changes that are occurring is perhaps the greatest challenge the community has to confront.
The book contains essays by and interviews with Sylvia Barack Fishman, Steven Bayme, Steven M. Cohen, Arnold M. Eisen, Rabbi David Ellenson, Manfred Gerstenfeld, Rela Mintz Geffen, Daniel Parmer, Leonard Saxe, Marc B. Shapiro, Ira M. Sheskin, Chaim I. Waxman, Jack Wertheimer and Steven Windmueller. Read More »

Washington Conference on Genocide

Letter to Richard Goldstone

In a nutshell, your Report is a deeply flawed document that is not only unbalanced and inflammatory, but reflects a procedurally deficient rush to judgment incapable producing any meaningful findings, least of all charges as grave, politically loaded and emotionally laden as those of “war crimes” and “crimes against humanity”. Read More »

German Leftists on European Power

The anthology Weltmacht Europa – Hauptstadt Berlin? was published as part of the “Konkret Texte” series under the heading “imperialism.” The choice of title indicates that this collection of texts is part of a debate within the political Left of Germany, and not really a comprehensive handbook in the classical sense. Nevertheless, it draws a clear line against those so-called “anti-imperialist” elements of the German Left which indiscriminately view the U.S. and the EU as evil empires and regard Israel as an imperialist bridgehead, if not the single power calling the shots. Read More »

Conference: Hamas the Gaza War and Accountability under International Law

Opening Remarks Dr. Lars Hänsel Introduction: The Dangerous Bias of the United Nations Goldstone Report Dr. Dore Gold International Law’s Limitations on Contending with Terror Dr. Roy S. Schondorf Redifining the Law of Armed Conflict? Legal Manipulations regarding Israel’s Struggle […] Read More »

Accountability of the Hamas under International Humanitarian Law

The laws of war have historically developed in two separate normative frameworks. The first is known as jus ad bellum, and refers to the legality of the resort to war. This area is governed by the UN Charter, as well as international customary law. The second normative framework is called jus in bello, also known as International Humanitarian Law (IHL). This area regulates the manner in which the fighting is conducted, once the warring parties have entered into an armed conflict. IHL applies in situations of armed conflict, whether international or non-international in nature. Its main goal is to protect civilians and other categories of persons who do not participate in the hostilities, as well as certain objects, from harm inflicted during armed conflicts.1 To achieve this goal, IHL treaties and customary norms define which acts are legitimate and which are prohibited during armed conflicts. IHL applies equally to all parties to an armed conflict, regardless of whether they were justified in resorting to war in the first place. Read More »

International Responses to Territorial Conquest

While territorial conquest has been relatively infrequent in the post-World War II period, most conquests have not been condemned by the international community. Indeed, open acceptance is as common as condemnation. The small likelihood of international opposition to conquest suggests that the relatively low incidence of conquest should be attributed to causes other than the non-recognition norm. This does not mean that the anti-conquest norm has no force or “compliance pull,” but it does suggest that condemnation and nonrecognition are not likely play a significant role in decisions about whether to conquer. Read More »

State-Sanctioned Incitement to Genocide: What Can Be Done?

Conference held on September 23, 2008 in Washington, D.C. Sponsored by the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Genocide Watch, Conference of Presidents of Major Jewish Organizations, International Association of Genocide Scholars, and Yale University’s Initiative for the Interdisciplinary Study of Anti-Semitism […] Read More »

JPSR: Special Issues

About   Research Areas   Subscribe   Back Issues   Special Issues   Article Subjects   Jewish Political Studies in the UniversityVolume 1, Numbers 3-4 (Fall 5750/1989) Israel as a Jewish StateVolume 2, Numbers 3-4 (Fall 5751/1990) Obligations and Rights in the Jewish Political TraditionVolume 3, Numbers 3-4 (Fall […] Read More »

JPSR: Research Areas

About   Research Areas   Subscribe   Back Issues   Special Issues   Article Subjects   The subfields of Jewish political studies include: Jewish Political Thought Religious Movements, Ideologies and Public Persuasions Defining the Boundaries of Jewish Society Jewish Political Culture Jewish Political Behavior Jewish Political Organization Jewish Public […] Read More »

JPSR: Subscribe

About   Research Areas   Subscribe   Back Issues   Special Issues   Article Subjects   Annual Subscription Rates:   Individual Institutions & Libraries Students Outside Israel: $ 26 $ 40 $ 20 In Israel: ₪70 ₪110 ₪40 Back Issues: $12.00 For locations outside the United States and Israel, […] Read More »

JPSR: About

About   Research Areas   Subscribe   Back Issues   Special Issues   Article Subjects    The Jewish Political Studies Review is the first and only journal dedicated to the study of Jewish political institutions and behavior, Jewish political thought, and Jewish public affairs. Published by the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, the JPSR appears […] Read More »

Iran’s Race for Regional Supremacy: Foreword

Defensible Borders for a Lasting Peace: Executive Summary

About the Defensible Borders Initiative

The Defensible Borders Initiative of the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs is the culmination of efforts by some of Israel’s leading military strategists, diplomats, international jurists, and parliamentarians to raise the international profile of Israel’s longstanding and internationally-sanctioned rights and […] Read More »

Israel at 60: Confronting the Rising Challenge
to Its Historical and Legal Rights

Confronting the rising challenged to its legal rights now that we’ve reached Israel at 60. Read More »

Jewish Anti-Zionists and the Delegitimization of Israel

Defensible Borders for a Lasting Peace

Israel does not possess a plausible solution to its security needs without the Golan Heights. Read More »

Redifining the Law of Armed Conflict? Legal Manipulations regarding Israel’s Struggle Against Terrorism

A Rabbinical Revolution? Religion, Power and Politics in the Contemporary Ukrainian Jewish Movement

The role of the “religious element” in the contemporary Ukrainian Jewish movement is examined in the wider context of Jewish politics in that country. Analyses focus on the reasons for and objectives of the political advancement of Ukrainian rabbinic leaders in the second half of the 1990s and the growth of their influence on Jewish community-building in post Soviet Ukraine. Also discussed is the political nature of the rabbinic leadership and the place of Jewish spiritual leaders as a ruling group within the disposition of political forces in the local Jewish community. Read More »

The Regeneration of French Jewry: The Influx and Integration of North African Jewry into France, 1955-1965 by Michael Laskier

From the Editors

This issue opens with an assessment by Steven Bayme of the development of American Jewry’s relationship to Israel. American Jewish leadership helped frame the ongoing special relationship between the United States and Israel, especially since 1967. The main tensions between Israel and American Jewry concern the issues of personal status as well as religious pluralism. Nevertheless, the pro-Israeli consensus has held firm over the sixty years since Israel’s establishment.
Read More »

Military-Strategic Aspects of West Bank Topography for Israel’s Defense

Appendix 1 Due to its location and topography, the West Bank (Judea and Samaria) has played a vital role in Israel’s national security since it was captured by the IDF in 1967. The West Bank is relatively small, covering 2,123 […] Read More »

From the Editors

This issue opens with an analysis by Richard Landes of the increasingly important phenomenon of conspiracy theories. He points out that such theories contain three basic elements of apocalyptic movements: they are radical revelations about an otherwise opaque present; they are part of a larger, cataclysmic, final transformation of the world; and they refer to imminent events. After World War II, Western society seemed to have marginalized conspiracy theory. Yet, at the turn of the twenty-first century, there has been an aggressive rise in (traditional) Muslim conspiracism and a remarkable vulnerability to conspiracy theory in the West. Read More »

Anatomy of Syrian-Israeli Tensions: A Background Analysis

Syria served as a primary conduit for the build-up of Iranian-backed Hizbullah prior to the outbreak of the Second Lebanon War in July 2006. Damascus supplied the majority of the heavy-payload rockets Hizbullah fired at Israel Read More »

Iran, Hizbullah, Hamas and the Global Jihad: A New Conflict Paradigm for the West

If there remains doubt over the underlying reasons for the ongoing violence in the Middle East, the Second
Lebanon War with hizbullah is one of the clearest illustrations in many years that “the Middle East conflict” does not stem from
Israel’s “occupation of Arab o Read More »

Israel’s Right to Secure Boundaries: Four Decades Since UN Security Resolution 242

Looking at Israel’s right to secure borders 40 years after UN resolution 242. Read More »

From the Editors

This issue opens with articles on aspects of the post-Holocaust reality. Sidney Zabludoff’s “At Issue” essay notes the low percentage of stolen Jewish assets that were returned in the various restitution rounds. He emphasizes the fact that the highly publicized restitution negotiations at the end of the twentieth century led to payment for no more than another 3 percent of these assets. Zabludoff’s article, which has raised worldwide media interest even before being published, also underlines the divergence between what governments promised to return and what was restituted. Read More »

From the Editors

This issue opens with two articles analyzing post-Holocaust topics. A persistent Holocaust myth has portrayed Denmark as a country that under occupation followed a policy as favorable as possible toward Jews. This was based mainly on the highlighting of a single occurrence, the rescue of the Danish Jews to Sweden in October 1943. Read More »

Israeli Responses to the FBI’s Espionage Investigation Leak – A Compendium

Israel’s security establishment insists there is no Israeli involvement in allegations that a Pentagon analyst provided Israel with secret documents relating to White House deliberations over Iran – as reported by CBS News. Read More »

Illegal Construction in Jerusalem:
The Long Term Consequences of Illegal Building

The Controversy over Building Permits:
Illegal Construction in Jerusalem

Illegal Construction in Jerusalem: Israeli Planning Law and Illegal Building

Second Herbert Berman Memorial Symposium on New and Recurring Trends in Contemporary Anti-Semitism

Arab anti-Semitism is nowadays the major source of anti-Semitism in the world, the borders between anti-Semitism and anti-Israelism are in the process of being blurred, new centers of anti-Semitism have emerged in the Western world. These were major recurrent themes discussed at the 2nd Herbert Berman Memorial Symposium on Wednesday, November 13, 2002. Read More »

Rights Reserved

Unless otherwise noted, all material on this website is the property of The Jerusalem Center For Public Affairs and is protected by U.S. and international copyright laws. To request permission to reprint any Institute content, whether by physical reproduction or […] Read More »

Israel at War: Primary Sources

Perspectives on Israel at war – from the War of Independence to the Gaza War of 2012 – from those writing at the time, the primary sources of history. Read More »

Washington Misled: Saudi Arabia’s Financial Backing of Terrorism

Vol. 1, No. 23     6 May 2002   As a result of Israel’s Operation “Defensive Shield,” new documents have been uncovered from Palestinian offices that directly link the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with financial backing of terrorist attacks […] Read More »

What Really Happened in Jenin?

The Jenin refugee camp in the northern West Bank was the scene of some of the harshest fighting during Israel’s “Defensive Shield” operation. It contained an extensive military infrastructure for terrorist operations against Israel that involved all of the main Palestinian terrorist groups: Islamic Jihad, Fatah, and Hamas. Since October 2000, Jenin-based terrorist networks were responsible for 28 attempted suicide attacks against Israel, of which 23 were actually executed. It is no wonder that in a captured Fatah document ( the Palestinians themselves call Jenin “the martyrs’ (meaning suicide bombers) capital” — as-simat al-istashidin. Read More »

A Primer for the Arab Summit in Beirut

Vol. 1, No. 21    March 26, 2002 The Arab summit must not alter the only agreed terms of reference for the Arab-Israeli peace process — UN Security Council Resolution 242. The whole debate over whether Israel allows PLO Chairman […] Read More »

Saudi Arabia’s Op-Ed Diplomacy: A Public Relations Ploy or a Serious Initiative?

Vol. 1, No. 20   A revealing Washington Post news story on February 26, 2002, reported a striking American public opinion poll claiming that Americans rated Saudi Arabia above North Korea and Syria as a state-supporter of international terrorism. While 64 percent of Americans […] Read More »

Was There a Missed Opportunity for Resolving the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict?

A number of observers of Middle East diplomacy still believe that a full political solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is within reach. Advocates of this school of thought point to the purported breakthroughs reached during the Taba talks in January 2001. If they had a few more weeks, so they argue, an Israeli-Palestinian final-status deal could have been struck. For this reason, they assert that if Israel and the Palestinians were to re-engage diplomatically, they could reach an agreement based on the December 1999 Clinton parameters that were presented to Israeli and Palestinian negotiating teams at the White House. Read More »

Arafat’s Iraqi Connection

Vol. 1, No. 18    February 6, 2002 Both Iraq and Iran would have a difficult time projecting their influence in the Arab-Israeli sector of the Middle East, if Yasser Arafat was not seeking to draw them into his conflict […] Read More »

Elie Hobeika’s Assassination: Covering Up the Secrets of Sabra and Shatilla

Vol. 1, No. 17   Elie Hobeika knew the truth of Israel’s innocence in the Sabra and Shatilla massacres, and for that reason many interested parties wanted him silenced. Elie Hobeika, the former Lebanese Christian militia leader, was killed by […] Read More »

Marwan Barghouti, Fatah-Tanzim, and the Escalation of the Intifada

The twin attacks by Fatah gunmen on a Hadera bat mitzvah celebration last week and on Israeli civilian pedestrians in Jerusalem this week have brought back into focus the military wings of the Fatah organization and the responsibility of its leadership, particularly Yasser Arafat and Marwan Barghouti, for these operations. Ironically Read More »

The PLO Weapons Ship from Iran

Vol. 1, No. 15    January 7, 2002 Last week’s seizure by Israeli naval commandos in the Red Sea of the Palestinian ship, Karine-A, with its cargo of over 50 tons of Iranian weapons and explosives, reveals an entirely new […] Read More »

Destabilizing Implications of Iranian-U.S. Rapprochement for Israeli and Global Security

Vol. 1, No. 14    January 3, 2002 During the U.S. military build-up for America’s anti-terrorism campaign in Afghanistan, speculation grew over a possible political by-product of the war: a U.S.-Iranian accommodation after years of mutual hostility. The apparent driving […] Read More »

Yasser Arafat, Christmas, and the PFLP

Just one day before Yasser Arafat hoped to attend Bethlehem’s Christmas-eve celebrations, Israel arrested an operative of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) in Haifa, who was planning a terrorist attack in the heart of the city. The two events were not unlinked, for the Israeli government had conditioned Arafat’s participation in the Midnight Mass at Bethlehem’s St. Catherine’s Church upon his arrest of the PFLP leadership in Ramallah who were responsible for the murder last October of Gen. Rehavam Ze’evi, the Minister of Tourism of Israel. Read More »

Maintaining Israel’s Qualitative Military Edge: Dilemmas for the Bush Administration

Three times in recent decades the United States has approached Arab countries to join broad coalitions in support of military objectives: ousting the Soviet Union from Afghanistan in the 1980s, ousting Iraq from Kuwait in 1991, and the current war on terrorism. In each case, efforts to garner Arab support created tensions with the U.S. commitment to maintain Israel’s “qualitative military edge” against all potential adversaries. Proposed sales in 2001 of AGM-84 Harpoon “Block II” missiles and MLRS rocket systems to Egypt indicate that once again there is a danger that a fundamental strategic principle may be sacrificed for ephemeral diplomatic gains. Read More »

How Arafat’s Palestinian Authority Became an “Entity Supporting Terrorism”

In the aftermath of the December 1-the Palestinian Authority “an entity that supports terrorism.” This determination, even if only declarato2 Hamas bombings in Jerusalem and Haifa that left 27 Israeli civilians dead and 175 wounded, the Israeli government designated ry, closed a chapter in Israeli-Palestinian relations. Read More »

Powell’s Middle East Speech: A Scorecard

Secretary of State Colin Powell’s much-anticipated unveiling of America’s vision for the Middle East (University of Louisville, Nov. 19) nudged U.S. policy in a positive direction in certain respects, but is unlikely to meet the expectations which preceded it. Read More »

Why Syria is Becoming the Coalition’s Spoiler

Ironically, the post-September 11 international environment has not reduced Syria’s traditional support of international terrorism, but rather led Damascus to follow a dangerously escalatory policy. Read More »

Israeli Operations in Area A: The State Department vs. the Oslo Accords

The October 22 request by the U.S. State Department spokesman that Israel “immediately” withdraw from and not return to Palestinian-controlled areas (Area A) implies that such actions are in violation of the Oslo Accords, that they hamper the prospects for a return to negotiations, and that they threaten the wider American war on terrorism. None of these implications are correct. The statement stands in marked contrast to the past understanding shown by President Bush that placed the burden of cease-fire implementation on Palestinian Authority head Yasser Arafat. Read More »

Draining the Swamp of Terror: One Corner at a Time, or All at Once?

“From this day forward, any nation that continues to harbor or support terrorism will be regarded by the United States as a hostile regime.” — President George Bush, Address to a Joint Session of Congress, September 20, 2001 Read More »

Palestinian Cease-Fire Compliance: Dilemmas for American Policy

President George W. Bush was very cautious about the marks he gave to Palestinian Authority leader Yasser Arafat on the latter’s cease-fire efforts. True, Bush stated: “I was pleased to see that Mr. Arafat is trying to control the radical elements within the Palestinian Authority, and I think the world ought to applaud him for that” (emphasis added). Bush re-stated his belief that “there ought to be a Palestinian state, the boundaries of which will be negotiated by the parties” (Presidential News Conference — October 11, 2001 — Read More »

One Year of Yasser Arafat’s Intifada: How It Started and How It Might End

The first anniversary of the current Palestinian Intifada was marked on September 28, 2001, throughout parts of the Arab world. The date was chosen to correspond to Ariel Sharon’s visit to the Temple Mount one year ago, when he served as head of Israel’s parliamentary opposition. Because of the alleged proximity of his visit to the Al-Aqsa Mosque (he actually did not get near the Muslim shrines), the Palestinians called their uprising: the Al-Aqsa Intifada. But clearly this name was chosen in order to mobilize Arab and Islamic public opinion for a more general struggle over Jerusalem rather than over the Palestinian cause alone. Read More »

Militant Islam’s Fury at America: The Israel Canard

After witnessing the September 11 terrorist assault on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, many American analysts have been seeking to understand the source of the intense hatred against the United States that could have motivated an act of violence on such an unprecedented scale. In that context, a new canard is beginning to run through repeated news reports and features: that somehow America’s support for Israel is behind the fury of militant Islamic movements, like that of Osama Bin Laden, towards the United States. Read More »

Have the Palestinians Abandoned a Negotiated Settlement?

Tremendous intellectual energies have recently been expended in trying to ascertain why PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat refused President Clinton’s proposals for Israeli concessions at Camp David and in subsequent negotiations. Read More »

Occupied Territories or Disputed Territories?

Last month’s Palestinian draft resolution at the UN Security Council again described the West Bank and Gaza Strip as “occupied Palestinian territories.” References to Israel’s “foreign occupation” also appear in the Durban Draft Declaration of the UN World Conference Against Racism. This language was not just chosen for rhetorical purposes but in order to invoke specific legal claims: For example, Palestinian insistence on using the term “occupied territories” is usually connected to the assertion that they fall under the 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention. Yet, Palestinian spokesmen also speak about Israeli military action in Area A as an infringement on Palestinian sovereignty: If Israel “invaded Palestinian territories,” then they cannot be regarded as “occupied”; however, if the territories are defined as “occupied,” Israel cannot be “invading” them. Read More »

Civilizational, Religious, and National Explanations for Ethnic Rebellion in the Post-Cold War Middle East


The July 2000 Camp David Summit was clearly a diplomatic failure, that resulted largely, though not exclusively, from the in surmountable gap between Israel and the PLO over the issue of Jerusalem. The Palestinian violence imposed on Israel by the PLO, in the summit’s aftermath, not only undermined the future of any meaningful peace negotiations, but also threatened the stability of the entire Middle East region. The Camp David breakdown, in short, was not cost-free.
I Read More »

Frequently Asked Questions about International Forces

Learn More Why International Peacekeepers Cannot Replace the IDF Amb. Dore Gold Kerry and the Struggle Over the Jordan Valley Amb. Dore Gold No Reliance on Foreign Forces Minister Yuval Steinitz The Risks of Foreign Peacekeeping Forces in the West […] Read More »

Why Israel Opposes International Forces in the Jordan Valley

A critical issue in Israeli-Palestinian negotiations is the future of the Jordan Valley. Watch this video to learn why Israel cannot withdraw from the area and rely on international forces. “We don’t want to see rockets and missiles streaming into […] Read More »

A Jewish “March of Dimes”? Organization Theory and the Future of Jewish Community Relations Councils

The changes occurring in American Jewry and in Israel are having their ripple effect on the organizational structure and governance of the American Jewish community. Jewish Community Relations Councils (JCRCs) are finding that their original substance-based goals have been accomplished to a great extent or no longer possess a sense of urgency. What, then, is the future of JCRCs? The literature of organization theory frequently cites the March of Dimes, which had totally accomplished its sole goal and then sought to remain in existence by engaging in goal succession. Read More »


Appeasement: 80 Years since the Munich Agreement September 5, 2018 Conference Program View all conference videos 100 Years Since the Balfour Declaration February 28, 2017 Conference Program View all conference videos 100 Years since the Sykes-Picot Agreement: Lessons for the […] Read More »

The Jewish Experience as an Influence on Hans J. Morganthau’s Realism

Hans J. Morgenthau was probably the foremost exponent of the school of political realism in the academic discipline of international relations in the United States and has
left a permanent imprint on the thinking of both theoreticians and practitioners in the field. A product of a European education, he fled Nazi Germany for the U.S. during the Hitler years, and had a distinguished career at the University of Chicago and the City University of New York. This article explores certain little known aspects of the Jewish experience which affected him such as the impact of searing anti-Semitism, and his subsequent activism in Jewish causes. It argues, based on a comparison and
analysis of both Jewish and general writings, that the Jewish experience influenced Morgenthau’s “realist” worldview in terms of a disillusionment with enlightenment expectations of harmony and progress, and accentuated his appreciation of the power phenomenon human relations. Read More »


The Goals of Reform / Domination by Government and Banks / The Government Steps Out / Relaxation of Restrictions / A Move from Government Bonds to Stocks / Government’s Continuing Role / Types of Credit / What Remains to be Done Read More »

Homeland Security Portal

Jerusalem Center publications related to American homeland security concerns Read More »


From Sword into Ploughshare – Regional Arrangements for Israel and the Palestinians?

The reality of globalization and the beginning of cooperative arrangements between the Israelis and Palestinians. Read More »

Partnership 2000: A New Model for Diaspora – Israel Relations

Israel reaching out to non-traditional partners in Diaspora and looking to a changing future. Read More »

Can Orthodoxy Share the Public Square?

This essay analyzes whether Orthodoxy must perceive competing streams of Judaism as illegitimate in order to remain Orthodox and whether or not the public square in Israel can be reconfigured so as to make it possible for competing ideological groupings to work together.
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Judaism and Organized Jewish Movements in the USSR/CIS after World War II: The Ukrainian Case

After the decades of discrimination against organized Jewish life in the Soviet Union, the present period shows creation and rapid development of Jewish national organizations and institutional infrastructure of Jewish communities in most of the post-Soviet states, including Ukraine. At the same time, there is an evident contradiction between an intensive “Jewish politics” within the community and wide representation of Jews among the local elite, on one hand, and a very poor representation of the Jewish population as an institutionalized ethnic group in the state political arena. The reason for this is found in the history of Jewish life in Soviet Ukraine after World War II, including the experience of the creation and existence of legal (state-sponsored), illegal (underground national and human rights organizations), and quasi-legal (religious communities) Jewish social institutions in a hostile social and political environment. Read More »

Virtual Reality Comes to Canadian Jewry: The Case of the Canadian Jewish Congress Plenary

This article deals with the issue of the changing nature of the “public square” of contemporary Jewry through an account of the Canadian Jewish Congress Plenary Assembly in Winnipeg, Manitoba in 1998. The CJC Plenary has historically been, par excellence, Canadian Jewry’s “public square.” The program of the 1998 Plenary differed from that of previous Plenaries in that a major portion of the event’s schedule was shifted from “traditional” activities, such as speeches and resolutions, to a “talk show” format of sessions on issues of contemporary Jewish concern. This major shift in format raises questions – most particularly that of the control of public discourse in the Jewish polity. Read More »

How do the Issues in the Conversion Controversy Relate to Israel?

The present controversy over non-Orthodox conversions to Judaism in Israel is a serious flashpoint in Israel-diaspora relations, particularly in relations between Israel and U.S. Jewry. For Israelis, on the other hand, it is a secondary issue even for those concerned about the power of the ultra-Orthodox in the Jewish state. This is partly because very few Israelis are affected by the conversion issue. Even those families of Russian Jewish olim that contain non-Jewish members have not shown great interest because most have not shown real interest in conversion to Judaism in any form. Read More »

Introduction: Reexamining the Issue of Religion in the Public Square

An increasingly prominent characteristic of our time is the need to reexamine the issue of religion in the public square. The modern synthesis separating church and state and thereby excluding the institutions of religion from the public square, even while allowing the spirit of religion to help shape the public life of various countries, has come unraveled in the face of postmodern changes. These changes include the rise of neopaganism, which has meant that the principles of separation are applied exclusively
to the monotheistic religions while pagan religions can penetrate the public square in the guise of folklore and multiculturalism, coupled with a growing felt need to feel that religion, particularly the monotheistic religions, have something important to contribute to resolving the issues of the day and cannot fairly be excluded. Read More »

Argentinian Jewry in Crisis: Pressures and Proposals

A crisis of identity for Jews in Argentina, and Israel’s role in developing youth movements and encouraging Aliyah. Read More »

The Socio-Economic Patterns of Iraqi Jewry in the Twentieth Century by Moshe Gat

The majority of the Jews of Iraq in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries lived in three major cities: Basra, Baghdad and Mosul. In the first half of the nineteenth century a process of modernization began in the Jewish community, paralleling the policy of Westernization and modernization in the Ottoman Empire, as reflected in the Tanzimet. The Jewish community was declared a millet, a religious community enjoying internal autonomy in religion and education. Like other minorities within the empire, the Jewish community was granted equal rights and security of life.
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Who is an Israeli?: “Halakhah” and Citizenship in the Jewish State by Martin Edelman

Mishpat HaMelukhah and the Jewish Political Tradition in the Thought of R. Shimon Federbush

R. Shimon Federbush, a Mizrachi leader, proposed a blueprint for reconciling Jewish law with the law of modern, democratic Israel. He developed a traditional category, mishpat hamelukhah, as a highly flexible mechanism for accomodating the decisions of a Jewish legislature to the pre-state Jewish legal tradition. Federbush represents a comprehensive attempt to reconcile inherited Judaism and modern republicanism. His contribution shows both the promise and the limits of that still urgent project.
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Jewish Tort Law Remedies Not Based on Torah Law – An Approach Based on the Ran and the Rivash by Steven Friedell

This essay examines how two of the leading rabbis of fourteenth century Spain defined the roles of the rabbinic courts and the secular Jewish community in the governance of tort
disputes that arose within the community. Recognizing the impracticalities of the Torah’s legal system, the Ran developed a theory of Jewish self-government that gave much power
to the secular Jewish leaders. His responses reveal that he applied this approach not just in criminal cases as some have suggested, but also in torts cases. He also limited the rabbinic court’s power to punish even religious offenses. The Ran ‘s disciple, the Rivash, took a similar view, and recognized broad authority of the Jewish community to legislate without rabbinic oversight.
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Maimonides on the Renewal of “Semikha”: Some Historical Perceptive by Gerald Blidstein

This article proposes that the Maimonidean suggestion that semikha can be renewed should be seen in historic, as well as jurisprudential, perspective. Maimonides denied the
right of any contemporary institution, especially the Babylonain gaonate (which vigorously claimed the priviledge) to grant semikha. But since semikha is an essential component of messianic redemption in its rabbinic version, the Maimonidean position could be undermined by the argument that it denied the messianic possibility. By providing a mechanism for the renewal of semikha, Maimon ides could negate that claim.
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Regulations (Takanot) Concerning the Public and the Individual in the Talmud by Shalom Albeck

Concurrent Jurisdictions in Jewish Law (The Practical Criminal Procedure as Posited by the Medieval Authorities in General and by Maimonides in Particular) (In Hebrew)

The Historic and Contemporary Relationships between Halakhah and Mishpat Hamelukhah

This article introduces the Jewish Political Studies Review issue examining traditional sources for building a civil state in a halakhically-acceptable manner, drawing upon
the halakhic category of mishpat hamelukhah. Jewish tradition knows two sources of legitimate legislative-judicial-governance activity. Principal among them is the halakhah which is traditionally understood as a direct development from God’s covenant with Israel at Sinai. The Bible developed the semi-separated category of mishpat hamelukhah (the law of the kingdom), explicated in Deuteronomy 17:11-20 and I Samuel 8-15, a parallel and semi-separate legal-judicial governance system within the power of the kings and other civil rulers in Israel.
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Public Finance Considerations for Israeli Municipalities

Creating debt management programs for municipalities, and helping Israel to recover from its recession. Read More »

Modern Orthodoxy in America: Possibilities for a Movement Under Siege

Assemblies by the Sea: The Jewish Chautauqua Society in Atlantic City, 1897-1907 by Peggy K. Perlstein

The Jewish Chautauqua Society (JCS), founded in Philadelphia in 1893 by Reform Rabbi Henry Berkowitz, evolved from an organization dedicated to popularizing Jewish knowledge among Jews to one devoted to teaching non-Jews about Judaism. Modelled on Chautauqua Institution, the Society established reading circles, a Correspondence School for Hebrew Sunday School teachers, religious schools for the children of Jewish farmers,, published textbooks, and, beginning in 1897, held annual assemblies for more than forty years.
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Walls and Boundaries in Rabbinic-Biblical Foreign Policy: A Psychological Analysis by Kalman J. Kaplan and Matthew B. Schwartz

This essay extends an interpersonal model to rabbinic interpretation of biblical foreign policy. Specifically, a wall-boundary analysis is made of ancient Israel’s relation to four categories of nations: (a) Amalek and the Canaanites, (b) Ammon and Moab, (c) Edom and Egypt, and (d) the other nations. King Saul’s counternormative behavior is discussed toward (a) King Agag of Amalek and (b) the Hebrew priests of God at Nob. Wall permeability becomes normative with an unassaulted inner boundary. When the boundary is under assault, however, wall permeability is expressly blocked. Read More »

Power and Spirituality in the Thought of Hans J. Morgenthau

Hans J. Morgenthau’s legacy has been undergoing a scholarly reevaluation. From an earlier perception of Morgenthau as a one-dimensional advocate of pure realpolitik, more recent scholarly literature has been emphasizing significant transcendent themes in Morgenthau’s thought, that reflect his concerns relating to the importance of morality in state craft, man’s philosophic quest, and even spirituality. Drawing on his teaching, unpublished works, and lesser known published works, this work contends that Morgenthau had significant spiritual concerns that under lined his assumptions about man’s behavior in the political realm, upon which his understanding of international behavior was ultimately based. Read More »

The Importance of Terminology for a Solution to the Jerusalem Question

The Regeneration of French Jewry: The Influx and Integration of North African Jewry into France, 1955-1965

Switzerland and the Unfinished Business of World War II

How Israel Absorbed the Immigration Wave of the 1990s

Kenneth Hart Green’s Jew and Philosopher: The Return to Maimonides in the Jewish Thought of Leo Strauss by Laurence Berns

In his book on Leo Strauss, Jew and Philosopher…, Kenneth Hart Green has provided the first serious study of the development ofStrauss’s thought. Strauss’s fundamental thought that revealed theology and philosophy are mutually irrefutable takes the form in Maimonides of a cosmological opposition between creation and eternity. Philosophy’s incapacity to refute its revealed counterpart requires recognition of that counterpart as a possibility. Green’s Strauss’s Maimonides’ prophetology articulates human perfection as a reconciliation of reason and revelation, a reconciliation of prophet and philosopher-king.
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Kenneth Hart Green’s Jew and Philosopher: The Return to Maimonides in the Jewish Thought of Leo Strauss

Are philosophy and biblical faith compatible? Early, Strauss wrote that in every attempt to harmonize them, one of the two is sacrificed to the other. Later, he seemed to think that the two can co-exist peacefully, each learning from the other. I argue that there is no place for revelation in the life of reason. Because Maimonides was primarily a philosopher, he argued that
there were rational grounds for all the commandments. Philosphy thus enslaves revelation instead of co-existing peacefully with it.
Read More »

Kenneth Hart Green’s Jew and Philosopher: The Return to Maimonides in the Jewish Thought of Leo Strauss

Are philosophy and biblical faith compatible? Early, Strauss wrote that in every attempt to harmonize them, one of the two is sacrificed to the other. Later, he seemed to think that the two can co-exist peacefully, each learning from the other. I argue that there is no place for revelation in the life of reason. Because Maimonides was primarily a philosopher, he argued that there were rational grounds for all the commandments. Philosphy thus enslaves revelation instead of co-existing peacefully with it.
Read More »

An Inquiry into the Foundations of Law: J. Locke’s Natural Right in the Biblical Scholarship of J. Wellhausen and C.E.B. Cranfield by Terence Kleven

This essay is a critical evaluation of John Locke’s account of natural right as it is manifest in the biblical scholarship of J. Wellhausen and CE.B. Cranfield. It provides a summary of
the accounts of law given by Wellhausen and Cranfield respectively in order to show that certain views of law, that is, certain theological-political teachings, have been central to the emergence of modern biblical scholarship.
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The Theology of Toleration: A Reading of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity

This study offers a new, more political, view of the intentions, structure, and meaning of Locke’s masterpiece The Reasonableness of Christianity. It argues that Locke’s work is not to be viewed as another in a long line of seventeenth century works purporting to offer a “rational” basis for the Christian religion. Rather Locke’s purpose is to reinterpret Christian doctrine in order to make it “safe” for liberal regimes. Locke’s Jesus is not the Divine mediator nor focus of God’s revelation to humankind. Rather he is a moral teacher who provides the religious imprimatur for the virtuous behavior of the masses that liberalism requires. Read More »

Notes for Reading the Bible with John Locke by George Gross

The preference for republican government over monarchy in the He brew Bible appears to be revisited in the writings of the modern political philosophers, especially John Locke. The revival of this preference in the teaching of the moderns occurs in the mode of ideology, and rests upon a new epistemology that skirts the classic contention about the relationship of knowledge and virtue. Even so, the modern teaching is at once an interpretation and a qualified revival of the Scriptural teaching that man is to “be fruitful and multiply, abound in the earth, conquer it and rule” (Genesis 1:28).
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The Canadian Jewish Community and the Politics of Quebec Independance

Women and Women’s Issues in Israeli Politics

Financial and Human Capital Flows into Israel: What Role for Public Policy?

The Jewish Community of Cracow

Jewish-Israeli Identity among Israel’s Future Teachers

The question of Jewish-Israeli identity is one of present-day Israeli society’s cardinal and pressing issues. The identity of a citizen of Israel is not that of a purely Israeli identity, nor is it a purely Jewish identity. It is, in varying degrees, a synthesis of Jewish and Israeli components, depending on the particular subgroups or subidentities. Stress develops around the relationship between Jewishness and Israeliness and around the relationship between Jewish religion and Jewish nationality. Our findings revealed four distinct models of Jewish-Israeli identity: I) Non-religious (secular); 2) Traditionalist (religious tradition-oriented); 3) National religious (State Religious sector); 4) Ultra-Orthodox (Independent sector). A meaningful shift has occurred in the attitude of Israeli youth toward the Holocaust. Read More »

Changing Concepts of Movement Democracy: The Case of the Israeli Labor Movement

This article identifies and analyzes three concepts of democracy that have developed in the history of the Israeli Labor movement: institutional, competitive and pioneer. The institutional concept originated in the Labor party, and the Federation of Labor (Histadrut); the competitive concept was fully articulated by members of the circle of young leaders of Mapai in the 1950s; and the pioneer concept was developed by the collectivist kibbutz movement. The differences among the three concepts are discussed in relation to the suggested distinction between a system of democratic choice and a system of democratic approval.
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Shlichim from Palestine in Libya

Contacts between the Jewish communities of Palestine and the diaspora continued throughout the ages by shlichim (emissaries) who were sent from Palestine. This essay examines the background, goals, and activities of shlichim to Libya in the twentieth century, taking the earlier period as a background. In addition to traditional emissaries, an increasing number of Zionist ones were sent to Libya, at first imitating the practices of traditional ones. Gradually, the Zionist emissaries tried to transform the community and prepare it for emigration to Israel professionally, socially, culturally, and politically.
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The Jewish Farmers in Belarus During the 1920s

Revolution and civil war in Russia (1917-1921) precipitated far reaching changes in the life of Belarus Jewry. The shtetls (settlements) were extremely overpopulated and Jews eventually sought and found an escape. In 1923,18 percent of Soviet Jewry lived in Belarus. This essay describes the attitude of the authorities to the problem of Jewish land tenure regulation in the New Economic Policy, creation of individual farms, cooperatives and collective farms, and attitudes to that of the Belarussian peasantry Read More »

The Unknown Essays of Vladimir Jabotinsky (Research Note) by Louis Gordon

While most of Vladimir Jabotinsky’s articles have been published in various volumes of collected writings and have thus been available to scholars for years, a number of his
essays remain unknown to both scholars as well as his disciples. This is largely due to the fact that the Revisionist party’s archives were destroyed during the bombing of London, but also because of the wide range of publications in which Jabotinsky published. This article introduces four recently discovered essays, “Self-Administration for
Palestine” (1920), “The Justice of the Jewish Claim” (1921), “Shall the Jewish Middleman be Spared” (1930), and “The Jewish Mission, the Religious Ideals of the Jew and of the Aryan Compared” (1923), and discusses how they add to our understanding of Jabotinsky as well as their continued relevance for our own era.” Read More »

Bernhard Felsenthal: The Zionization of a Radical Reform Rabbi

This article traces Bernhard Felsenthal’s ideological and institutional odyssey from extreme radical Reform to committed Zionism. In the face of the overwhelming opposition of his Reform colleagues, Felsenthal endorsed and embraced the nascent Zionist movement and devoted his final years to its support.
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The Jewish Community of Vienna: Existing Against all Odds

The Israeli – Maghreb Connection: Past Contacts, Future Prospects

Is Peace a Zionist Vision or Fantasy?

Jewish Hungary Today

Haredi-Secular Conflict in Jerusalem

The Direct Election of the Prime Minister: A Balance Sheet

South African Jewry: An Analysis of Constitutional Documents by Abigail Weidenbaum

This essay examines four specific South African Jewish communal institutions to show how they exist as part of a federation. It explores the extent of the influence of the host environment of South Africa on the institutionalization of the Jewish community, as well as the extent that this institutionalization was influenced by the Jewish political tradition. Read More »

Constitutional Documents of the Kehila Ashkenazi in Mexico by Alicia Gojman de Backal

The Ashkenazijews arrived in Mexico at the beginning of the twentieth century. Being few in number, they prayed in the same small place as Jews of Sephardi descent. Yet differences between both groups appeared almost immediately because of the different styles of prayer service. These differences forced the Ashkenazi Jews to leave and search for a place of their own. This event can be considered as the initiation of the Kehild Ashkenazi in Mexico, which occurred in 1922. This study presents five early documents
in Spanish related to this founding and its development through the following seventy years. Read More »

Constitutional Documents of Two Sephardic Communities in Latin America (Argentina and Cuba)

This is a comparative analysis of the constitutional documents of the Unidn Israelita Chevet Ahim of Havana and the Sociedad Comunidad Israelita Sefaradi de Buenos Aires. Both were founded in 1914 by Jews from Turkey coming from a similar background, where the Jewish community was structured as a centralized body and protected by the state. The constitutional documents of these two communities reflect their similar aspirations to revive the pattern of organization of their community of origin, but which were achieved through different patterns of historical development. While Chevet Ahim was founded from its very beginning as a comprehensive communal organization, the Sephardic organization in
Buenos Aires began with a large number of small institutions limited in their scope. Read More »

The Development of Va’ad HaHinuch (Argentina) as Reflected in its Bylaws (1935-1943)

A comparison of four sets of bylaws of the Va’ad HaHinuch of Buenos Aires, approved over a nine-year period (1935-1943), allows us to follow developments in the standing of the
organization and its relationships with the Ashkenazi community and other institutions in the city. As its importance and influence increased, the leadership of the community as well as the political forces which comprised it tried to strengthen their control over the Va’ad HaHinuch, in order to limit its authority and prevent any independent activities not under their scrutiny.
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The Jewish Polity on Long Island – In Search of Continuity

According to a 1995 population study, there were 76,000 Jewish households in Nassau County and 37,000 in Suffolk, the two political divisions of Long Island. The Jewish polity in both counties is organized in two umbrella organizations: the Conference of Jewish Organizations of Nassau County (COJONC) and the Suffolk Jewish Communal Planning Council (SJCPC). This article discusses the membership of COJONC and SJCPC, their goals, and their activities. The detailed structures of both organizations are outlined in the appendices. UJA/Federation has thus far financially supported COJONC and SJCPC. Read More »

The Foundation Documents of the Jewish Community Council (Vaad Ha’Ir) of Montreal

This article examines the founding document of the Jewish Community Council of Montreal in the context of the North American kehillah movement of the early twentieth century. It also situates the document in the context of the internal dynamics of the Montreal Jewish community of the 1920s.
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The Constitutional Documents of the Italian Jewish Community

This essay aims to compare different constitutional documents of Italian Jewish communities from the sixteenth century until the last document enacted in 1989, in order to give a lasting perspective of the development of some aspects of Jewish political organization, thought, and structure. These documents show the development of state policy toward Jews and Jewish institutions from the Renaissance up to the present. Read More »

Enlightenment on Oslo: Words or Swords?

Israel’s Position on Jerusalem and International Norms for the Holy Places

Jewish Identity in Lithuania

The Peace Process and the “Right of Return”

Halakhic Interpretation from a Constitutional Perspective

The breakdown of traditional Jewish society and belief has led to the need to find new common ground for halakhic interpretation if the Jewish people’s halakhic framework is to be in any respect preserved in any reasonable manner. One possible way in which that might be done is by applying the canons of constitutional interpretation developed for modern constitutions, allowing for the differences between the comprehensive character of the Torah as constitution and the more limited character of modern frames of government. Read More »

Positivist Rhetoric and Its Functions in Haredi Orthodoxy

Haredi, or so-called “ultra-Orthodox/ Jewry contends that it is the most strict and therefore the most authentic expression of Jewish Orthodoxy. Its authenticity is insured by the devotion and loyalty of its adherents to its leading sages or gedolim, “great ones.” In addition to the requirements of explicit Jewish law, and, on occasion, in spite of those requirements, the Haredi adherent obeys the Daas Torah, or Torah views of his or her gedolim. By viewing Daas Torah as a norm within the Jewish legal order, Haredi Judaism reformulates the Jewish legal order in order to delegitimize those halakhic voices which believe that Jewish law does not require a radical countercultural withdrawal from the condition of modernity. According to Haredi Judaism, the culture which Eastern European Jewry has created to safeguard the Torah must be guarded so that the Torah observance enshrined in that culture is not violated. Read More »

American Modernity and the Jews

What is the place of religion in the American polity? Which view of this matter is good for America, and which for the Jews? This essay first elaborates the now-dominant libertarian vision of religion in the American republic, a view prevalent among Jews and endorsed by the Jewish polity, by means of a discussion and critique of Leo Vfeffer’s God, Caesar and the Constitution: The Court as Referee of Church-State Confrontation. It is argued that the Constitution is improperly understood as a blueprint for a secular “open society/’ founded on the principle of radical individual autonomy, to be protected against both church and state by a supreme, rights-defending judiciary. Read More »

Halakhah – The Governing Norm

This article describes how halakhah functions as the normative component of Jewish life. It presents the modalities ? intellectual as well as social ? through which halakhah
operates as well as sketching its general approach to the different topics it regulates. The method is phenomenological, though changes in historical reality are integrated into the
presentation. Read More »

Religion and Modernity in Our Day

In this essay a comparison is proposed between the positions of Jewish Orthodoxy in modernistic Western society before and after World War II. It is assumed that the differences arise as a result of major changes in the cultural nature of modernity. The differences are defined, and it is then claimed that they have led to a radical change in the role of all the Jewish modern Orthodox movements. (As a specifically successful example of integration between Orthodoxy and modernity before the war, the changing role of the religious kibbutz movement is particularly examined.) Read More »

Israel’s Economic Dilemma

Ukrainian Jewry: Some Personal Observations

Israel and Samson: Some Tenuously Biblical Reflections on Strategy

Transcending the Progressive Solution

The generation that inherited the results of World War II ? Jews included ? was the first of the postmodern epoch, and as such it faced a new set of problems peculiar to its circumstances. These problems, to be sure, had their roots in the era just ended, but they stemmed most immediately from the needs and concerns of a generation that grew up in a society strikingly different from its predecessors.
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The Impact of Changing Issues on Federations and Their Structures

On the occasion of the century of the federation movement, let us look at the primary focus of the federation system twenty years ago when its power was at its peak, and
compare the issues that preoccupied the federation movement then with those confronting federations today. This will provide a context to identify some of the more subtle issues at work in federations which guide or limit the governance process. It is my premise that federations have been excellent at responding to crises which have confronted Jews that were generated from outside of Jewish life. This crisis-oriented philosophy has permeated much of Jewish life and Jews’ psyches.
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The American Jewish Polity

At present, four great organizations dominate the communal-welfare and Israel-overseas spheres countrywide ? The Council of Jewish Federations, the United Jewish Appeal, the United Israel Appeal, which serves as the conduit and overseer of UJA funds allocated to the Jewish Agency, and the Joint Distribution Committee, one of the most respected organizations in the Jewish community.1
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The CJF and the Jewish Agency: An Historical Overview by Ernest Stock

The Council of Jewish Federations (CJF)1 today forms an integral part of the complex of American Jewish organizations which play an active role in the governance of the Jewish Agency. Its role, indeed, is so pivotal that it is difficult to imagine an earlier time when the Council was perceived by the Jewish Agency to be not merely an outsider but even an adversary, as was the case throughout the 1940s and well into the 1950s.
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The Federations Step Forward

Although its history as a Jewish community extends back to 1654, Jewish America was to all intents and purposes a colony of European Jewry until the nineteenth century, and was a dependency even longer. The combination of events and self-organization transformed it to be the dominant Jewish community for much of the twentieth century and the dominant diaspora community still. The federation movement became the keystone to that self-organization early, before it was recognized as such. Read More »

The Federation Movement in Three Contexts: American Jewry, the Jewish Political Tradition, and Modernity

The American Jewish community, the first fully emancipated Jewish community, is entirely a product of the modern epoch. As such it is in most respects a model of what Jewish
life has become or is becoming for all but a handful of Jews in the world: based on the voluntary commitment, through a variety of paths, of those individuals who care to be Jewish, few of whom feel obligated or compelled.
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Hebrew versus Greek Traditions of Individualism and Freedom: A Psycho-therapeutic Perspective

The Peace Process in the Middle East: A Stocktaking

On the Unity of Spinoza’s Tractatus Theologico-Politicus by Paul Bagley

Power, Politics and Religion in Spinoza’s Political Thought

In this essay we seek to discuss the relationship between religion and politics in the political theory of Spinoza. Since Spinoza’s politics is grounded in power, we must make an effort to understand the contribution both politics and religion make to the power of the state. In this connection our starting point is not one of arguing that Spinoza first seeks to undermine religion for the sake of some secular project. Rather, Spinoza saw religion as a necessary feature of political life. The problem then becomes one of reconciling some of the central features of religion with those of politics. This process of reconciliation alters the character of both religion and politics, and we outline the elements of that alteration. The concepts of justice and charity play a critical role in this process. We also examine the way in which piety and salvation are reconstituted. Finally, some speculation on the implications of a transformed religion and politics are noted at the end of this essay.
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The Histories and Successes of the Hebrews: The Demise of the Biblical Polity in Spinoza’s Theologico-Political Treatise

Here it happens that human beings in their Chronicles and histories narrate their own opinions rather than the very things enacted, and that one and the same incident is nar rated so differently by two human beings who have different opinions that they seem to be speaking of two incidents, and finally that it is often not very difficult to investigate the
opinions of the Chronographers and historians from the histories alone. Read More »

The Use and Abuse of the Bible in Spinoza’s Tractatus Theologico-Politicus by Harvey Shulman

The Tractatus Theologico-Politicus is Spinoza’s great work directing us to his view of the superiority of the political-secular jurisdiction of the state over its religious dimension. For Spinoza, biblical exegesis and hermeneutics were autonomous scholarly endeavors, separate from traditional biblical homiletics. His theological political approach leads him to
hone and explicate the prophetic texts for their secular and political implications, undermining the belief that a definitive sacred history took precedence over the secular narrative. The Bible becomes a vehicle for affirming, or refuting, political interests, historically, and for Spinoza’s own time. Through his biblical commentary, Spinoza articulates a commitment to a secular, liberal, republican politics, where philosophers have the security and freedom to reflect on ideas, free from any religious dogma and interference. Spinoza’s use and abuse of the Bible are also an indictment of two millennia of Jewish scholarship and faith, and also implicitly undermines Christian beliefs about Christ’s divinity and sacred dogma. Read More »

Reading the Bible with Spinoza by George Gross

This essay explores several themes of biblical exegesis in Benedict de Spinoza’s Theologico-Political Treatise. The essay aims to show that Spinoza’s critique of the Bible’s teachings on spirit, prophecy and miracles has its point of departure in the Bible’s own internal critique of these teachings. In passing, the essay sheds light on the Bible’s teachings regarding the exodus and the miracle at Joshua 10. It is proposed that Galileo’s teachings played a vital role in Spinoza’s framing of his ideas. The essay attempts to follow Spinoza as he readies
the Bible for its admission into the modern city, while not discounting Spinoza’s exegetical motivation in writing his Treatise. Read More »

Spinoza and the Bible

As a Jew, Spinoza had to raise a somewhat different set of questions than Hobbes and Locke. While the questions of the latter grew out of their lives safely ensconced in the relatively homogeneous majority of their own land and led to the development of the idea of civil society, Spinoza, a Jew seeking admission to the larger society from which he was excluded, provided the intellectual basis for liberal democracy. The first modern secular Jew, he championed the separation of religion and state and the development of a basically secular society in which Jews, Christians, and others could be accepted without regard to their religious or ethnic ancestry. To foster his goal he had to confront the Bible and either refute its claims or render them unimportant to civil society. The most knowledgeable of the seventeenth century philosophers when it came to Scripture because of the Jewish education of his childhood, he “invented” modern biblical criticism. Read More »

The Meaning of Terrorism for the IDF Military Commander

Post-Soviet Jewry at Mid-Decade Part II

Post Soviet Jewry at Mid-Decade Part I

Israeli-Russian Relations Since the Collapse of the Soviet Union

Israel in a Changing World

Viewpoint from Gaza: A Growing Frustration with the Peace Process

Some German Jewish Orthodox Attitudes Toward the Land of Israel and the Zionist Movement

German Orthodoxy in the Wilhelmine and Weimar periods presents an interesting case study in Jewish attitudes toward Israel and the diaspora. The German Orthodox minority, no more than ten to twenty percent of German Jewry after World War I, participated with the majority of German Jews in a whole-hearted affirmation of German culture (in German Zionist parlance: Galutbejahung). As with all German Jews, German culture had become definitive of their very identity as Jews. Despite their commitment to Jewish observance, the German Orthodox had more in common with their less observant or non-observant brethren than with the historic Jewish traditional culture of Eastern Europe.
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Religious Values and Political Expediency – Australia and the Question of Jerusalem: 1947-1950

Australia’s crucial role in the UN decision of 9 December 1949 to internationalize the whole city of Jerusalem and Bethlehem emanated from the mistaken belief of the Minister
of External Affairs, H. V. Evatt, that many Catholic votes could be won by that initiative. The campaign in Australia to that end by some quarters in the Catholic Church clearly demonstrates very obvious anti-Semitic attitudes within its hierarchy. The policy of the Liberal-Country Party government regarding Jerusalem reflects the dilemma of a government forced by circumstances to continue pursuing a policy which it had fundamentally rejected. Read More »

The Social, Cultural and Political Impact of Zionism in Libya (Research Note)

The development of the Zionist movement in Libya was an evolutionary process which brought changes in ways of thinking and behavior without detaching completely from tradition. New social and economic elements entered public life (lower middle class and women) and changes took place in education (modern Hebrew language and literature and modern Jewish history). This is not to say, however, that those social elements did not have any part in public life beforehand, but now their involvement became a mainstream one. Similarly, traditional education did not cease, and the old political guard continued to exist: the official communal leadership was manned by it, and Zionist leaders were observant Jews who were backed by many rabbis. Despite the growing involvement of women, they hardly reached leadership positions. The impact of the Zionists. Read More »

The Brazilian Jewish Polity in a Democratizing Society: The Israelite Federation of Rio De Janiero State

More Than a Truce: The Cold War Between the PLO and Hamas

Prospects for Israeli-Indian Security Relations

An Economist Looks at Post-Socialist Russia

The Vacuum in Moral Leadership in Israel and the Alternatives for Filling It

Non-Proliferation Agreements, Territories, and Regional Nuclear War

The Double Quincentenary: Jewish Themes in the 1492-1992 Commemorations

The Israel – PLO Agreement : Palestinian Perspectives

An Anthropological and Postmodern Critique of Jewish Feminist Theory

Anthropologists believe that cultures operate as whole systems and that subsystems such as religions cannot be understood outside the context of the larger culture in which they operate. Religion, then, is simply an analytical category that bounds certain behavior clusters, but does not encompass the totality of a culture. Postmodernists espouse “a wariness toward generalizations which transcend the boundaries of culture and reason.” Together, these two methods of inquiry suggest that it is not possible to separate religion from culture or knowledge from the particular “knower.”
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Jewish Responses to the Nazi Threat, 1933-1939: An Evaluation

The Nazi persecution of German Jewry between 1933 and 1939 elicited a strong response from virtually every corner of the Jewish world. Jewish responses were, however, limited by the political and economic weaknesses of diaspora Jewish communities at the time. Lacking a strong-willed defender, the Jewish communities were able to undertake only limited rescue actions. Moreover, even such actions as were undertaken elicited considerable differences of opinion among Jewish leaders and communal activists. This essay elucidates some of the options for action that were available to diaspora Jews in the 1930s, seeking to place the failure to rescue German (and later, European) Jewry
into its proper historical and analytical context. Read More »

The Third Charter of the Jewish Merchants of Venice, 1611: A Case Study in Complex Multifaceted Negotiations

For over twenty years, the Jewish “projector” Daniel Rodriga sought to convince the Venetian government that it could revive its declining commerce with the Levant, which had once been the source of the greatness of Venice, and thereby also greatly increase its diminishing customs revenues, by issuing a charter allowing Levantine and Ponentine Jews (the euphemism used for Iberian New Christians) to settle in Venice as Venetian subjects. Finally, in 1589, the Venetian government responded favorably, as the Senate approved, for
ten years, a slightly changed version of a charter-text that Rodriga had proposed. The Venetian government was pleased with the results, and consequently, at Rodriga’s request, it routinely renewed the charter for another ten years in 1598. Read More »

Politics and Perfection: Gersonides vs. Maimonides

Gersonides (1288-1344) is consistent in seeing the pure life of the mind as the highest end to which a human being can aspire. Maimonides (11$8-1204) certainly presented the vita contemplativa as a crucially important goal but made room in his view of the perfected life for what we would call today statesmanship or politics. Gersonides’
view is surprising because he refuses to follow the Platonists in their call for some sort of integration between the vita contemplativa and the vita activa, the Aristotelians who called for their separation, or ibn Bajja in his insistence that the philosopher withdraw from society. Read More »

John Selden and the Biblical Origins of the Modern International Political System

John Selden, one of seventeenth century England’s foremost jurists and legal scholars, wrote many monographs treating the interrelationship between the universe of the Hebrew Bible and that of contemporary Protestant Europe. As we demonstrate, Selden analogized relations among the states of Europe to relations among the biblical nations. Indeed, in defining and in applying the concept of sovereignty to the modern world, Selden relied heavily on the biblical ideal of artificial boundaries and separations in international relations, even
locating the very origins of sovereignty in the biblical narrative’s affirmation of the principle of boundaries. Read More »

Max Weber’s Conception of Covenant in Ancient Judaism, with Reference to the Book of Judges

Max Weber provided an important methodological tool for the modern study of the Jewish political tradition: a predominantly socio political analysis of Israelite covenants. Yet in emphasizing a functional analysis of covenanting, Weber problematized covenant as a theological concept. Arriving at an appropriate balance of political and theological elements in the analysis and interpretation of covenant is crucial to any adequate account of the Jewish political tradition. This essay offers an explication of Weber’s views, a contemporary critique of them by Julius Guttmann, who was sensitive to the methodological problem, and a challenge to future writing on the Jewish tradition. Read More »

The Land of Israel vs. A Jewish State: The Oslo Agreement Revives an Old Debate

The Cultural Implications of the Spread of the Market in Contemporary Israel

Uzbekistan: A Traveler’s Notebook

Russia’s Jews: Extinction or Renaissance?

Israel, Iran, and Nuclear War: A Tactical and Legal Assesment

A Critique of Hobbes’s Critique of Biblical and Natural Religion in Leviathan

While Thomas Hobbes is generally recognized as a preeminent po litical philosopher, he is, to say the least, much less regarded as a theologian or religious thinker.1 Yet it suffices to inspect the frontispieces and tables of contents of Hobbes’s greatest works, De Cive and Leviathan, to see that Hobbes proclaimed theology to be a central part of political philosophy. What is more, Hobbes esteemed himself as having provided the first successful, rational resolution of the most fundamental issues in religion as well as in politics and morals. Read More »

The Integration of Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews in Venezuela through the Decision-Making Process in the Educational System by Lily Blank

The development of the Jewish community in Venezuela and the integration of Ashkenazic and Sephardic Jews was made possible by two factors. The first is the democratic environment that had been present in the country since the arrival of the first Jewish settlers, which enabled the creation of the institutions of the community. The second was the effort of the Ashkenazi kehilla to create a Jewish educational system that offered “a little bit of everything” (Jewish history, tradition, Hebrew, Bible, and Yiddish) to every Jewish child, Ashkenazi or Sephardi, regardless of the economic or religious environment in the home. Read More »

The Jewish Community of Spain

This article examines the political dynamics of the contemporary Spanish Jewish community. First, the community’s history, foundation, settlement and early development are introduced. Then itsorganizational structure and function are addressed in the countrywide, local (particularly Madrid and Barcelona), and international (relations with Israel) arenas. The community’s legal status is explored next. The community’s character emerges through an analysis of leadership dynamics; Jewish identity, as similation, and integration; antisemitism and philosemitism. The study concludes with a look at current trends and directions. Read More »

The Organizational Framework of the Jewish Communities in Italy

In 1987 the Union of Italian Jewish Communities signed an agreement with the Italian government which established the overall framework of activity for this institution and its relationship to the Italian authorities. This agreement, published as a state law, changed many aspects of the former system of organization of the Italian Jewish communities. The agreement also empowered the Union of Jewish Communities to draft a constitution for Italian Jewry which will govern its internal life and institutions. Read More »

Communal Organization of the Jews of Tripolitania During the Late Ottoman Period

Isaac Abravanel and Aristotle’s Politics: A Drama of Errors

Aristotle’s Politics was almost unknown in medieval Jewish philosophy, which in its political thought was mainly based upon Plato’s Republic as transmitted by the Muslim commentators. This is why Abravanel’s apparent usage of the Politics in his antimonarchist interpretation of I Samuel, 8 seems to be such a breakthrough in medieval Jewish political philosophy. Such a breakthrough seems conceivable when we take into consideration the influence exerted on Abravanel by scholastic political philosophy, which was heavily influenced by the Politics ever since the text was translated into Latin in the thirteenth century.
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The Contribution of Spanish Jewry to the World of Jewish Law

Spanish Jewry’s contribution to post-Talmudie halakhic literature may be explored in part in The Digest of the Responsa Literature of Spain and North Africa, a seven-volume compilation containing references to more than 10,000 Responsa ? answers to questions posed to the authorities of the day. Another source of law stemming from Spanish Jewry may be found in the community legislation (Takanot HaKahal) enacted in all areas of civil, public-administrative, and criminal law. Among the major questions considered here are whether a majority decision binds a dissenting minority, the nature of a majority, and the appropriate procedures for governance. These earlier principles of Jewish public law have since found expression in decisions of the Supreme Court of the State. Read More »

Toward a Political History of the Sephardic Diaspora

The Zionism of the Sephardic world was based more on a vision of restoring traditional Jewish life in the ancient homeland than one of revolution which sought to replace tradition with some modern ideology. Unlike their Ashkenazi brethren, Sephardim always saw themselves as actors in the political arena, not only within their communities but in the larger entities of which their communities were a part. This essay represents a first cut at what we know about the political history of Sephardic Jewry and especially the exiles from the Iberian peninsula in the years between 1492 and the demise of their communities in the twentieth century. Special attention is given to the Sephardic world’s pre-lberian antecedents, the involvement of Jews in imperial Iberian politics, the styles of Jewish community organization in Spain, and the various forms of political participation and involvement after the Expulsion. Read More »

American Jewish Political Advocacy: Defining the Changing Agenda, Identifying the Emerging Players

Modernity Exhausted

Post Soviet Jewry: An Uncertain Future

Accelerating OPEC’s Demise: The Economic Consequences of the Persian Gulf War

Quiet Diplomat: Max Fisher

When Muslim Fundamentalists Use Western Words

Changing U.S. Interests in the Middle East

Communal Democracy and Liberal Democracy in the Jewish Political Tradition

This article describes the emergence ofliberal democracy, then compares and contrasts liberal democracy with communal democracy, showing the latter to be a prior form of
democratic self-government. It then discusses the two in the perspective of self-government and rights, the two dimensions of democracy. Having given the United States as the best example of liberal democracy and Switzerland as the best modern example of communal democracy, it then goes on to explore the Jewish political tradition and how it is also an example of communal democracy. The article then turns to the crisis of modernity and the Jewish polity and how the modern commitment to liberal democracy
won over a majority of Jews even as it posed problems for the Jewish polity, examining classical Judaism and pluralism, looking for accommodations between the two in the contemporary Jewish polity.
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Communal Democracy, Modernity, and the Jewish Political Tradition

This article describes the emergence of liberal democracy, then compares and contrasts liberal democracy with communal democracy, showing the latter to be a prior form of democratic self-government. It then discusses the two in the perspective of self-government and rights, the two dimensions of democracy. Having given the United States as the best example of liberal democracy and Switzerland as the best modern example of communal democracy, it then goes on to explore the Jewish political tradition and how it is also an example of communal democracy. The article then turns to the crisis of modernity and the Jewish polity and how the modern commitment to liberal democracy
won over a majority of Jews even as it posed problems for the Jewish polity, examining classical Judaism and pluralism, looking for accommodations between the two in the contemporary Jewish polity.
Read More »

From Private Rights to Public Good: The Communitarian Critique of Liberalism in Judaic Perspective

Contemporary communitarian thought critiques liberalism for the latter’s anemic conception of community. Liberalism requires a doctrine of community and common good in order to ground its predilection for distributive justice. For communitarians, liberalism here tries to square a circle. Mishnah, Talmud, and Maimonides anticipate this contemporary debate by conceiving of community and common good in a way thick enough to allow for distributive justice, yet limited enough to preserve individual rights.
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Democracy and Judaism: The Question of Equality

This essay considers the place of democratic ideas within the context of Judaic political thought, with special reference to the idea of equality. The views of Louis Finkelstein, Simon Federbusch, and Sol Roth on this question are considered. Distinctions are drawn between descriptive and prescriptive concepts of equality, as well as between absolute equality and the uniquely Judaic concept of infinite human value. Also discussed is the conflict between complete equality and absolute liberty and its resolution in the prescriptive concept of equality of negative liberty. The essay concludes that although there are fundamental ideological differences between democracy and the religious and ethical system of Judaism, the democratic form of government has the greatest current potential for accommodating the Judaic search for higher values.
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The Attitude Towards Democracy in Medieval Jewish Philosophy

Medieval Jewish thought, following Platonic and Muslim political philosophy, on the one hand, and halakhic concepts, on the other, was basically, although reluctantly, monarchist, and inherently anti democratic. It rejected outright what we term here as the ancient Greek variety of liberal democracy, which went against its basic philosophical and theological assumptions.
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Yugoslavia: The Process of Disintegration

Clinton and the Middle East: Decision Making and the New Administration

The Renewed Jewish Community of Spain

The Islamic Jihad: The Imperative of Holy War

The Possibilities and Limits of Intercultural Learning: A University Course on African American/Jewish Relations

The Canadian Conundrum: Two Concepts of Nationhood

Yitzhak Shamir and the Changing of the Guard

How Fares the Intifada? Assessing the New Mood.

The Changing Fortunes of Baltic Jewry

The Idea of Christianity in Hobbes’s Leviathan

This essay expounds Hobbes’s idea of Christianity based on a reading of Leviathan as a whole. Among the conclusions are these: First, that Hobbes was profoundly concerned with the religious questions spawned by the Reformation from start to finish in Leviathan, and there provides his most extended, elaborate commentary
on Christian belief. The common neglect of the third and fourth parts of Leviathan is a mistake, not only because Hobbes himself believed them of fundamental importance to his theorizing of the conditions for civil peace and spiritual repose, but be cause the themes of the latter two parts are present in the first two parts persistently.
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The Idea of the Messiah in the Theology of Thomas Hobbes

Hobbes elaborates a conception of the Messiah in his political treatises that is unusual because it seems to combine Jewish and Christian elements. He asserts that Jesus
is the Messiah in the sense of being the earthly king of the Jews as well as the Son of God and king of heaven. To clarify Hobbes’s position and to highlight its strangeness, it is compared with the views of Moses Maimonides and Blaise Pascal. Hobbes emerges from this comparison as a spokesman for a kind of “Jewish Christianity,” whose purpose is not to return to the early Jewish sects that embraced Jesus as a new Moses but to humanize the Messiah and to redefine Christianity for a new age of secular happiness. Hobbes thereby inaugurates a new kind of biblical criticism which the Deists of the enlightenment era developed and which continues today. Read More »

King David and Uriah the Hittite in the Political Thought of Thomas Hobbes by Thomas S. Schrock

The most neglected aspect of Hobbes’s attempt to solve the theological political problem is his reliance on divine punishment of the iniquitous sovereign. By turning that matter exclusively over to God or? what comes to the same thing? by immunizing such a sovereign against accountability to his subjects, Hobbes radicalizes a Christian motif and fragments what for Aristotle had been an integral political whole. This essay is about that fragmentation, with special attention to the text in which Hobbes makes his intention
partially clear? his discussion of King David’s murder of Uriah the Hittite. Read More »

Hobbes Confronts Scripture

Thomas Hobbes was foremost among the seventeenth century political philosophers who led the Western world across the fault line separating classical from modern
political philosophy. In doing so, he, like his other col leagues, had to confront not only classical political philosophy but the Bible. From the first of his writings to the last he
consistently confronted Scripture. Reading Hobbes reveals both the ambiguity and the ambivalence of his confrontation with the Bible. Hobbes wished to assault orthodox or conventional Christian belief but at the same time is drawn to the Hebrew Scriptures, not only because it is necessary for him to confront it for the sake of his argument or because of the Bible’s own elemental and compelling power. His struggle foreshadows and is even paradigmatic of that of modern man. This article traces his confrontation with Scripture in Leviathan. Read More »

A Critique of Hobbes’s Critique of Biblical and Natural Religion in Leviathan

While Thomas Hobbes is generally recognized as a preeminent political philosopher, he is, to say the least, much less regarded as a theologian or religious thinker.1 Yet it suffices to inspect the frontispieces and tables of contents of Hobbes’s greatest works, De Cive and Leviathan, to see that Hobbes proclaimed theology to be a central part of political philosophy. What is more, Hobbes esteemed himself as having provided the first successful, rational resolution of the most fundamental issues in religion as well as in politics and morals. Read More »

The Right to Belief in Jewish Philosophy

This essay looks at two texts in Jewish philosophy ? one medieval and the other modern ? and summarizes the logical connections between schematic beliefs about the universe in terms of the physical sciences, ethics in terms of the human sciences, and the dynamically determined nature of Jewish faith. More fully discussed is the logical status of dogma in Judaism with respect to the right of the individual within the community to sincere belief. It is argued that, contrary to what is commonly believed by modern Jews, doxis has as central a role in defining Judaism as does praxis.
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France, Israel, and the Palestinians

Letter to a Liberal American Friend

Anti-Israel Media and How to Fight Back

Return to the Source: The Islamic Republics of Central Asia and the Middle East

The CIS Economy in Transition

Rebuilding Jewish Education in Russia

Israel’s Ombudsman: The Commissioner for Public Complaints

Antisemitism in the United States 1992: Why are Jews Worried?

The Israeli Election and the Islamic A-Bomb

Medieval Rationalism or Mystic Philosophy? Reflections on the Correspondence between Leo Strauss and Eric Voegelin

The correspondence between Leo Strauss and Eric Voegelin covered three decades down to the mid-1960s and touched on many of the most urgent problems in modern political philosophy. At bottom the key question they debated is whether the true paradigm of philosophy is a purely naturalistic rationalism of the kind fashioned by
the thirteenth century Arab and Jewish thinkers in their revival of Aristotelianism and exemplified, later on, by Spinoza; or whether the true paradigm is grounded in the
Reason (nous) of Plato and Aristotle as it symbolizes a range of experiential meaning from intellection to faith, thus comprehending analysis, intuition, and revelation. Strauss contends for the former, Voegelin for the latter view; one in the name of demonstrative knowledge, the other in the name of mystic philosophy. Despite their substantial disagreements, both writers stand severely at odds with contemporary ideologies and, generally, join in preferring the ancients to the moderns. Read More »

Authority and Legitimacy in Jewish Leadership: The Case of Lucien Wolf (1857-1930)

The traditional leadership of Anglo-Jewry came increasingly into question in the early 1900s. A burgeoning agenda associated with an influx of East European immigrants and a rising tide of anti-Semitism provided ammunition for Zionists and workers’ organizations to mount a challenge to its hegemony. The challenge was sharpest in the area
of foreign affairs where the part-time amateur conduct of a self-selecting, self-perpetuating oligarchy in the Conjoint Foreign Committee appeared most keenly out of touch, out of date, and lacking in democratic accountability. Read More »

In the Shadow of the Mountain: Consent and Coercion at Sinai

The graphic description of God holding Mt. Sinai over the Israelites’ heads, threatening to bury them under it unless they accepted His Torah, is familiar to many. Whatever the existential import of this tale, its literal sense is that the Jewish people were coerced into receiving the Torah. This essay analyzes other traditions about the Sinai covenant and indicates that these, in contrast, assert the consensual nature of the receiving of the Torah.
Read More »

Deuteronomy as Israel’s Ancient Constitution: Some Preliminary Reflections

This article has the dual purpose of indicating how contemporary political science can approach the study of an ancient constitutional text and the examination of Deuteronomy as such a constitution. Ancient constitutions are distinguished from modern ones by devoting as much or more attention to the moral and socio-economic bases of the polity as to the frame of government. Deuteronomy is a classical example of that kind of ancient constitution, designed to adapt the Torah-as-constitution presented in the first four books of the Pentateuch to the Jewish polity once the people are established in Eretz Israel. As such it is both a repetition of what has been presented before
and a modification of earlier constitutional teachings. Read More »

The Fight Over “Special Allocations” for Haredi Religious Education in Israel

Teenage Soviet Jewish Immigrants: Strongly Jewish, Moderately Religious

Hamas: The Islamic Resistance Movement in the Territories

The Jewish Community of São Paulo, Brazil

The Jewish Community of Sao Paulo, Brazil

Israel and the Diaspora: A Dialogue Between “Gola” (Exile) and Geula (Redemption)

Syria and Terrorism

Is There a Practical Way to Bridge the Gap Between Traditional Jewish and Modern Expectations of Rights and Obligations?

In looking for a bridge between traditional Jewish and modern views of obligations and rights, we can turn to the tradition of federal liberty? the liberty to live in accordance with the covenant to which one has consented? as developed in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries by Reformed Protestant theo-political revolutionaries. Taking the biblical paradigm as the starting point, it is possible to suggest reconstruction of the modern rights model in line with ideas of federal liberty as follows: All human beings are created equal and endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights ? e.g., life, liberty, property and the pursuit of happiness. Read More »

Two Orthodox Jewish Theories of Rights: Sol Roth and Isaac Breuer

Modern theories of rights assume the existence of autonomous individual persons who possess rights by the mere force of their personhood alone. Orthodox Jewish thinkers Sol Roth and Isaac Breuer contest the primitive original character of personhood in this sense. They assert that neither rights nor persons precede a social reality constituted by duties and obligations seeking to ground personhood in moral relationality rather than autonomy. Both thereby negate the modern project of ascribing rights. Read More »

Haredi Conceptions of Obligations and Rights: Polish Jewry, c.1900-1939

In their speeches and articles, Orthodox politicians and publicists in Eastern Europe devoted scant attention to the issue of individual rights. The author theorizes that, beyond a predilection in Jewish tradition for obligations rather than rights, the specific historical context of East European Jewry played the major role in shaping Orthodox concepts of oli garchic rabbinic leadership. Long-term institutional factors, such as the nature of the Jewish communal structure and the strong influence of Hasidism in Eastern Europe, plus more immediate historical factors, such as the rise of secularist Jewish political parties, led to the development of the ideology of daat Torah. Read More »

Individual and Community: Rights and Obligations as Reflected in Two Nineteenth Century Responsa

This essay examines the relevance of the responsa literature to the investigation of the issue of “individual and community” in modern times. It does so through an analysis of two nineteenth century Hungarian responsa, written by Rabbis Moses Sofer and Moses Schick. The analysis indicates that exrra-halakhic considerations were introduced into the halakhic discourse in both cases. The ultimate decision in both responsa was largely determined by these exfra-halakhic factors. Read More »

The Political and the Sacred: Political Obligation and the Book of Deuteronomy

The central puzzle of Israeli politics is how democracy has been maintained at all, given the lack of democracy in countries of origin, the deep internal divisions, and the
permanent state of war. At least part of the answer lies in understanding Jewish political traditions. The Zionist movement was, in large degree, a revolt against Jewish history. But inevitably Zionists were influenced by an extensive Jewish experience of self-government in the East European shtetl. This experience involved political institutions that were voluntary, inclusive, pluralistic, and contentious. It was also a closed system, facing a hostile external world and not equipped to deal with non-Jews as a group.
Read More »

Obligations and Rights in the Jewish Political Tradition: Some Preliminary Observations

In the modern concept of rights developed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, variously formulated as life, liberty and property” or “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness,” rights transcend civil society, which then translates them into constitutional, civil, criminal, and property rights. In contrast, the traditional Jewish view on rights is derived from the biblical sense of the obligation of all humans to God as their creator, sovereign, and covenant partner. Fundamental to the Jewish conception is the
principle that God is the creator and sovereign of the universe, all of which ultimately belongs to Him including all life within it. What emerges out of the biblical approach are a series of protections and limitations which can roughly be translated into rights and obligations. Read More »

Don’t Look Back: Holocaust Survivors in the U.S.

Don’t Look Back: Holocaust Survivors in the U.S.

Why Syria Agreed to Peace Talks

The Conversion of American Jewry

U.S. – Israel Relations After the Gulf War

Palestinians Challenge the Intifada

Unions, Politics, and Work: Unleashing Israel’s Human Resources

Dawn of a New South Africa

The Jewish Community of Cuba: Between Continuity and Extinction

The rise and subsequent decline of the Cuban Jewish community in the twentieth century embodies a unique chapter in the study of diaspora Jewry. Beginning with a group of U.S. Jews in a Spanish-speaking society, home to Ladino-speaking immigrants from the Ottoman Empire, a haven for Jews fleeing the Holocaust, witness to a mass exodus in the wake of the Castro Revolution, the Cuban Jewish community today continues to maintain a limited Jewish communal life under difficult conditions. Because Cuba lacks any tradition of religious antisemitism, there is no reported local antisemitic feeling, even though Cuba has taken a prominent anti-Zionist stand. Read More »

The Changing Character of American Jewish Leadership: Some Policy Implications

The study of policy-making in the Jewish community is a generally neglected area in contemporary research on Jewish life. One way to begin exploration of this domain is by looking at the characteristics of Jewish communal leaders, those who play the greatest role in policy-making. Over the past few decades leadership characteristics have been changing. Research and impressionistic evidence confirm that Jewish organizational leaders are more Jewishly-oriented, more focused on “survival” issues, and more formally socialized into leadership roles than in the past. These changes have a number of implications for both the substance of communal policies and the dynamics of policy-making which bear further study. Read More »

Rabbinic Views on Kingship – A Study in Jewish Sovereignty: A Precis

The debate over the nature and authority of Jewish governance did not first emerge with the creation of the State of Israel. It has its earliest roots in the Book of Deuteronomy and continues through the centuries in Rabbinic literature. The basis for the debate was the issue of whether kingship was divinely ordained (a mitzvah), and whether the people could have a king and still remain different from “all the nations.” Read More »

The Bible and Intra-Jewish Politics: Early Rabbinic Portraits of King David

This essay explores some of the concerns which might have influenced early rabbinic reconstructions of the private life and public career of King David. David and his monarchy were treated as vehicles for constitutional polemic, transposed into symbols of a particular type of ruler and regime. Three specific instances recorded in the Babylonian Talmud which lend themselves to political interpretation are discussed. When linked to allied early rabbinic dicta on the exercise and distribution of political power, they illustrate separate facets of what appears to have been an integrated constitutional doctrine. That doctrine is outlined and the
purposes to which it was put are demonstrated. Read More »

Land, State and Diaspora in the History of the Jewish Polity

The Jewish people represents the classic state-and-diaspora phenomenon of all time. Indeed, the term “diaspora” originated to describe the Jewish condition. In the 3500 years of the existence of the Jewish people, Jewish states have existed for roughly 1000 years, while Jewish diasporas have existed for at least 2600 years. For some 1500 years the Jewish people existed as an exclusively diaspora community. Nevertheless, the Jewish people not only preserved their integrity as an ethno-religious community, but continued to function as a polity throughout their long history through the various conditions of state and diaspora. This essay analyzes the unique characteristics of the Jewish people, particularly in the context of a world Jewish polity. Read More »

Birobidzhan 1990: A Traveler’s Report

Saddam Could Try Again

Report from Down Under: Australia and the Middle East

The Cuban Jewish Community Today

Soviet Jewry: An Update from the Field

Israeli Perspectives on the Gulf Crisis

Operation Exodus: Soviet Jewry Comes Home

American Jews and Non-Jews: Comparative Opinions on the Palestinian Uprising

American Jews have traditionally been known for their close ethnic attachment to Israel. However, it has been suggested that due to recent controversial events and scandals, such as the Pollard spy affair and the Palestinian uprising, Jewish ethnic ties to Israel have eroded to the point where American Jews were distancing themselves from their long-standing support of the Jewish state. In order to test this claim, this article compares the attitudes of American Jews and non-Jews toward the Palestinian uprising and fundamental Arab-Israeli issues. The findings show that during the uprising American Jews remained much more supportive of Israel than non-Jews, a phenomenon probably attributable to a solid Jewish “ethnic attitude structure” regarding Israel. Read More »

Jews, Jewishness, and Israel’s Foreign Policy

This article seeks to clarify the nature and manifestations of the Jewish dimension in Israeli foreign policy. Sensitivity to the interests of diaspora communities is generally subordinated to raison d’etat. External Jewish intervention in Israeli foreign policy is negligible, though greater involvement on the part of diaspora leaders can be detected. The impact of Jewish psycho-cultural factors on Israels external relations is decreasing as a result of the secularization of Israeli society and the diminishing weight of Jewish cultural baggage. Read More »

The Origins of the National and the Statist Traditions in Zionist Foreign Policy

The dilemma of choosing between goals that emanate from the ethnonational setting of Israel as opposed to those serving the state is rooted in Zionist thought and international behavior. The origins go back to the founding fathers of Zionism in the nineteenth century who responded to different challenges of their environment. Two case studies in which the Zionist movement had to choose between its loyalty to the Land of Israel and the idea of an immediate materialization of a Jewish state are examined. One case is the Uganda controversy and the second is the partition debate of 1937. Read More »

The Jewish State and the Jewish People: Israeli Intellectual Thought from the Six-Day War to the 1980s

In what ways does the existence of the State of Israel shape the national consciousness and identity of different Jewish circles in Israel? This research explores that question through the perspective of three central concepts around which the conceptions of the different circles move. The first concept is defined as “general normalization,” i.e., the view that perceives Jewish existence, whether in its religious expression in the diaspora or in its national-territorial expression in the State of Israel, as a moral phenomenon that does not differ from other nations or religions. The second is “unique normalization,” an attitude prevalent among the majority of Jewish intellectuals in the U.S. who, on one hand, consider Jewish existence as similar to that of other ethnic groups in their country in its characteristics and status; on the other hand, they emphasize its unique relationship with the State of Israel. Read More »

Jewish Political Traditions and Contemporary Israeli Politics

The central puzzle of Israeli politics is how democracy has been maintained at all, given the lack of democracy in countries origin, the deep internal divisions, and the permanent state of war. At least part of the answer lies in understanding Jewish political traditions. The Zionist movement was, in large degree, a revolt against Jewish history. But inevitably Zionists were influenced by an extensive Jewish experience of self-government in the East European shtetl. This experience involved political institutions that were
voluntary, inclusive, pluralistic, and contentious. It was also a closed system, facing a hostile external world and not equipped to deal with non-Jews as a group.
Read More »

Israel’s Public Health System: The Prospects for Change

The Intifada in Judea and Samaria: A View From the Field

The Ultra Orthodox in Israeli Politics

Of Kings and Captains: Morocco, Jordan, and Prospects for Stability in the Middle East

The Proliferation of Unconventional Weapons in the Arab World

Biblical Scholarship in the Communist World

Canadian Jewry: Challenges to a Growing Diaspora Community

The Relationship between the Jewish Political Tradition and the Jewish Civil Religion in the United States

The concept of civil religion is rooted in the American situation, al though congenial to Judaism. American civil religious rituals such as a presidential inauguration, Thanksgiving, and Memorial Day serve as vehicles of national religious self-understanding. Since the earliest days of the nation, American Jews have maintained their own
interpretations of American civil religion which usually accompanied ideologies of Jewish civil religion. Some writers focused on the shedding of ethnic otherness for rebirth as a new American man, while others affirmed the central values of liberty, justice, and freedom as stemming from God’s laws. American Jews build their civil religion on the two traditional contradictory tendencies of kinship and consent, at times giving priority to one over the other. Where the saliency of the Jewish political tradition does not en counter a vigorous opposite trend within American society stemming from vernacular folk values, the process of secularization, or the natural rights tradition protecting the individual, American Jews have continued to structure their civil religious consensus and organizational life according to Jewish tenets. Read More »

Zionist Voluntarism in the Political Struggle: 1939-1948

A broad overview of the political system in the Jewish Yishuv in Palestine is presented for the years 1939-1945. The years 1939-1945 were characterized by political dissension. In the period 1945-1948 a crosscutting process may be discerned inside that system. Special attention is given to how this pluralistic and voluntaristic system functioned during World War II and the period of political and military struggle for the founding of the State of Israel. Emphasis is placed on the difference between
constructive Zionism, led by the Labor movement and headed by David Ben-Gurion, and on the pure political military Revisionist movement. The political clash between the two movements is described as a confrontation of two political cultures, which eventually determined the fate of Zionism from the 1930s until the founding of the state. Read More »

“Ideal” and “Real” in Classical Jewish Political Theory

This essay considers the degree to which Jewish political and legal theory allows? and, indeed, mandates ? the recognition that the Torah legislates an ideal law which is not
appropriate for situations of social and political stress, and the degree to which such situations are really the historical norm rather than the exception. The Talmud, it is shown, adumbrates this concept, but in a fairly marginal form. Maimonides places it at center stage of societal governance, apparently expecting that a Jewish society will
of necessity be thrown back upon this option; but he also suggests guidelines for its regulation.
Read More »

Jethro’s Advice in Medieval and Early Modern Jewish and Christian Political Thought

Jethro’s advice to Moses about how to organize the political system of the ancient Jewish state (Ex. 18:13-27; Deut. 1:12-17) was one of the three major biblical sources which were used in medieval and early modern political thought. (The other sources are Deut. 17 and I Samuel 8.) This text was mainly used in two related contexts? the theory of government, in which the commentators generally followed Aristotle, and the relationship between the spiritual and temporal authorities? between
kingship and prophecy? in which a strong Platonic-Alfarabian influence is apparent. This study takes into account the changing historical realities and intellectual trends of the medieval and early modern periods.
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Has the Intifada Really Weakened American Jewish Support for Israel

At Israel’s Backdoor: The Quagmire of Ethiopia

Israelis Abroad: Discovering the Truth

U.S. Israel Relations in the Post-Cold War Era

Early Warning: Identifying Potentially Genocidal Political Movements

Economic Survey: Jordan, Egypt and Saudi Arabia; The Intifada’s Minimal Economic Impact

Options and Strategies for Israeli-Palestinian Peace

A Time for Spiritual Leadership

The Jewish People and the Kingdom of Heaven: A Study of Jewish Theocracy

Teaching the Jewish Political Tradition to the Jewish Civil Service

A convergence of three developments ? the American Jewish community’s maturing self-awareness, the growth of Jewish communal service as a professional field, and the emergence of Jewish political studies as an academic discipline ? makes possible a new emphasis on serious study of the Jewish political tradition as a key component in thetraining of Jewish communal professionals. Jewish political studies can provide these professionals (and lay leaders) with a knowledge base and perspectives that link Jewish values and historical experience to contemporary issues of communal organization, process, and policy. Experiences in both academic and non-academic settings have shown that a thematic, issue-oriented approach to teaching the Jewish political tradition can enhance lay and professional leaders’ sense of authenticity and effectiveness as Jewish leaders. Read More »

Comparative Politics and the Jewish Political Experience

The study of Jewish political ideas, institutions and behavior has not been incorporated into comparative politics, nor have the concepts and tools of comparative politics
been used to illuminate the Jewish political experience. This article attempts to show how the study of the Jewish political heritage, distinguished by longevity, adaptability, and the development of both concepts and institutions worthy of study, could enrich comparative politics. Similarly, using concepts such as national integration, ethnopolitics, political culture, civil-military relations and others may help us understand better the experience of Jews both in the diaspora and in the State of Israel. Read More »

Israel’s Democracy and Comparative Politics

This paper indicates how fruitful the integration of Israeli politics into comparative politics may be both for the study of Israeli politics and for theory-building in comparative politics. Special characteristics of the Israeli polity? constitutional government without a constitution, the religion-state relationship, the control system of the Arab minority, the
political role of the “non-political” army, the consociationalism between Orthodox and secular elites, and the impact of the occupied territories on Israel’s democracy? can be better understood in comparative perspective. In the same way comparative political studies in areas such as the rise and fall of dominant parties, the mode of operation of grand coalitions, the role of the military-industrial complex in a liberal democracy, the problem of “new” minorities, the influence of diasporas, and the constitutional dilemmas involved in constitutional engineering in deeply divided societies could very well benefit from a closer study of the Israeli polity. Read More »

Political Philosophy and the Jewish Political Tradition: Can They be Integrated?

The maturation of the field of Jewish political studies has produced a substantial literature on several topics, among them Jewish political thought. Yet conventional teaching of political philosophy in Western universities tends to ignore this literature. The questions of why this should be the case and how material from the Jewish, political tradition might be integrated into the teaching of political philosophy are addressed. Several themes that appear in the field of political philosophy are discussed with suggestions as to how Jewish political thought might apply to them. These themes include: the ideal polity, the achievement and maintenance of legitimacy, the nature of the political community, the obligations of individual citizens, the rights of citizens, balancing rights and obligations, the basis for political authority, equality, the significance of the state in the system,
the creation of the just society, the exercise of power, and the ethical dimensions of war and peace. Read More »

Bible and Pedagogy in the Teaching of Western Civilization

The Bible is infrequently taught in Western civilization courses in North American universities. The overwhelming number of university students are biblically illiterate and, in most instances, their teachers seem not to be better informed than those whom they are instructing. Attempts to introduce the Bible and other Judaic material in general Western civilization programs will engender opposition from many university faculty including Jewish academics who have chosen to reject what they often see as the confining world of a distinctive Jewish framework. There is also an uncritical appropriation of traditional Christian notions of the “Old Testament.” Academics have little trouble
teaching the Iliad and the Odyssey, texts that represent oral and written traditions that have evolved and have been rewritten over a period of hundreds of years.
Read More »

Studying and Teaching Jewish Political Studies in the University

Jewish political studies is a neglected but extremely significant dimension of Jewish life that needs to be explored. An understanding of the influence of the Jewish political tradition on Jewish public affairs during the epochs of Jewish national independence and communal self-government can be useful in meeting problems of Jewish public affairs and communal organization. The present exploration of Jewish phenomena from a political science perspective began in the 1950s and has developed significantly
in recent decades. That exploration has developed a theoretical framework that looks at the phenomenon of the Jewish polity at any time and in any place. This framework rests upon the assumptions that the Jewish people is a corporate entity by definition, that exploration of the Jewish polity can be undertaken with the tools of political science, and that Jews have continued to function as a polity throughout their history.
Read More »

Revolutionary Times in the Soviet Union

Inside American Orthodoxy: A Survey of Social and Sexual Attitudes

Islamic Fundamentalism Among the Palestinian Arabs

Peace, Beauty and Intifada: An American Jewish Political Scientist Returns to Jerusalem

Israel’s Labor Movement: What Went Wrong?

The Emerging Generation of Canadian Jewish Leaders

Interest Groups and the State in Israel

The PLO After Algiers, Stockholm and Geneva: Rhetoric and Substance

Ben-Gurion’s Concept of Mamlahtiut and the Forming Reality of the State of Israel

Ben-Gurion’s concept of mamlahtiut was at the center of his political ideology. It entailed not only the vision of an independent Jewish state, but primarily a set of principles
and modes of operation which he deemed essential for the formation of the state and considered highly critical for its preservation. Read More »

Interpretation of Genesis

I want to begin with the remark that I am not a biblical scholar; I am a political scientist specializing in political theory. Political theory is frequently said to be concerned with the values of the Western world. These values, as is well-known, are partly of biblical and partly of Greek origin. The political theorist must, therefore, have an inkling of the agreement as well as the disagreement between the biblical and the Greek heritage. Everyone working in my field has to rely most of the time on what biblical scholars or classical scholars tell him about the Bible on the one hand and Greek thought on the other. Still I thought it would be defensible if I were to try to see whether I could not understand something of the Bible without relying entirely on what the authorities, both contemporary and traditional, tell me. Read More »

The Language of Jewish Political Discourse

Theology is a source for political ideas and their implementation since God is described as a ruler and authorizer of social entities. The public playing out of theology is found in liturgy which not only describes political concepts but offers a dramatic means to implement them through the use of public ritual. Read More »

Keter as a Jewish Political Symbol: Origins and Implications

The use of the Hebrew term keter (lit. “crown”) to describe agencies of Jewish autonomous rule is first apparent in tanna’itic texts, and especially in Mishrtah, Avot 4:13. This article examines the reasons for that innovation, and examines the categories of rulership to which the term was applied. It is suggested that keter reflected an identifiable notion of “sovereignty” and its exercise. In early rabbinic usage, it became a vehicle which conveyed a unique view of the constitutionally correct ordering of Jewish political life. Read More »

The Themes of the Jewish Political Studies Review

The founding of the Jewish Political Studies Review marks yet an other major step in the emergence of the field which can be said to have begun twenty years ago with the publication of the first bibliographic essay on the subject in the American Jewish Yearbook. In the intervening 22 years, courses in Jewish political studies have been
introduced in over twenty universities around the world, a basic literature has been published, and some half a dozen conferences have been held to address issues in the field. Regular sessions are held at the World Congress of Jewish Studies in Jerusalem, the annual meeting of the Association for Jewish Studies in Boston, and at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association. An annual Workshop in the Study and Teaching of the Jewish Political Tradition, that brings together scholars from throughout the world, is entering its seventh year. At least one systematic theory has been developed to frame the field and parts of it are already being challenged by younger scholars, a sure sign of having arrived. Read More »

The Growing Power of Saudi Arabia

Israeli Settlement and Israeli Law in Judea and Samaria

The 1988 Israeli Elections: Questions of Identity

The Jordanian Comeback in the Territories

Developing the Galilee: The Case of Migal

The Unseen Israelis: The Jews from Turkey in Israel

Soviet Policy Toward Israel’s National Unity Government in the Gorbechav Era

Kurt Waldheim: Austria’s Dream Candidate

The Impact of Muslim Fundamentalism on the Israeli-Arab Conflict

The Montebello Mystery

Idealology and Raison D’Etat in Israel’s Relations with the USSR

The New Status of the Italian Jewish Community

The Other Refugees: Jews of the Arab World

Judea and Samaria: Behind the Uprising

Political Reform in China in the 1980s

The Last Jews in India and Burma

Decision Making in Israel: Partnership and Interaction Between the Political and Military Establishment

For Ourselves and for Others: Defining Jewish Interests

Unrest in Judea, Samaria, and Gaza: Rethinking the Milson Solution

The American Jewish Community Turns to the States: The Springfield Office of the Jewish Federations of Illinois

Survivors of the Spanish Exile: The Underground Jews of Ibiza

Le Pen is More than “A Detail” in French Politics

King Hussein, the Peace Process, and the Territories

Australian Attitudes Towards the Jews

Kach and the Limits to Political Tolerance in Israel

The Kurdish Front in the Iran-Iraq War

Kurt Waldheim and the Catholic Problem

After Two Years of Economic Stabilization

Suburbanization: The Hidden Jewel in Rural Settlement

A New Jewish Agency for the 1990’s

Christian America or Secular America? The Church-State Dilemma of American Jews

The 18th Palestinian National Conference: A Victory which Spells Defeat

Israel’s Arms Exports

Determination and Accommodation: Israel’s Environmental Protection Service

How New York Jews Vote: Myths and Realities

From Occupation to Confederation: A Framework for Comprehensive Peace Between Israel and its Neighbors

Gush Emunim Today

Israel and Jordan – An overlapping of Interests

New Zealand and Jewry in Transition

Inside and Egyptian University

The Geo-Demographics of American Christian Attitudes Towards Jews and Israel

Unity Government: The Second Phase

Whither the NRP?

Hussein, the Palestinians, and the PLO

Jewish Pacs: A New Force in Jewish Political Action

American Jewish Demography: Inconsistencies that Challenge

American Jewish Demography: Mistakes that Challenge

Forecasts of World Oil Markets and the Saudi Role

Italian Press Reaction to the Pope’s Synagogue Visit

Armenians in Israel

Tourism to Israel: Its Significance, Present Situation, and Future

The Israeli Struggle Against Racism

What Makes Assad Run?

Building Community Among the Marginally Afilliated

Beit Shemesh and Kibbutz Tzora: The Possibility for Interaction

Hussein and Arafat: The Troubled Partnership

Defense Expenditures, Debt, and Devaluation – The Dilemmas of Israel’s Economy

Argentine Jewry Between Dictatorship and Democracy

Hebron: Jewish – Arab Flashpoint

The Economy of the Territories and the Future of the Arab Palestinians

The Economy of the Territories – Forbidding Palestinian Land Ownership in Egypt – Jordan – PLO Connection

Beyond the Green Line: American Jewish Settlers in Judea, Samaria, and Gaza

The Challenge of Islamic Fundamentalism

After the TWA Hostage Crisis: New Program Needs

Emerging Arab Metropolis in Jerusalem

Is There a French Jewish Vote

Jews and Blacks in the 1984 U.S. Election

Demographic Profile of Eretz Israel

Toward Fiscal and Economic Recovery in Israel: Some Lesson’s from New York City’s Bailout Experience

The Bi-nationalization of the Land of Israel

Israel’s Eleventh Knesset

The Decline (And coming fall?) Of Israeli Higher Education

The West Bank Arab Press

The Kibbutz in Israel Today

Israeli Emigres and the New York Federation: A Case Study in Ambivalent Policy Making for “Jewish Communal Deviants”

Zionism as a Strategy for the Diaspora: French Jewry at a Crosswords

SUMUD Versus Settlements: Communal Conflict in the Holy Land

The 1983 Israeli Municipal Elections: Mixed Trends and Minor Upsets

Federation Allocations for Jewish Education and Community Centers: A Comparison

The Enemy is not Anonymous

American Jews and Israel: Pragmatic, Critical, But Still in Love

A Surfeit of Democracy: The Multiplicity of Candidates and Party Lists in the Israeli Municipal Elections

A Pleasant But Dangerous Hug: Security Limitations of Press Freedom

The West Bank on the Verge of Civil War

The Impact of the Israeli Invasion of Lebanon on Soviet Middle Eastern Policy

Jews in Egypt – 1983

The International Monetary Fund: Implications for Israel

The Only Way Out

The Jordanian Establishment and the West Bank

PLO: Nexus for International Terror

The Future of Israeli Politics

Reflections of a Lebanon Relief Officer

Palestinian Emigration from Judea and Samaria

Israel in the Wake of the Beirut Massacre: Ten Days in Search of Answers

Challenging Begin from Within: The Response of the Religious Parties and the Sephardim to the Beirut Massacre

The Autonomy Negotiations: Past and Present Experiences

Saving in Inflationary Times: How the Israelis Do It

Israel’s “Peace for the Galilee” Operation in Lebanon – Some Initial Perspectives

The Israeli Inflationary Experience

Israel’s Defense Burden Grows, Despite the Peace with Egypt

Endangered Minorities: Christians in Arab Countries

Endangered Minorities: Christians in Arab Countries

The Emerging European Jewish Community Structure

The Role of Central Banking in a Democratic Regime

Diaspora Community Representation in Project Renewal: Their Roles and Importance

Jews on the Move: The New Wave of Jewish Migration and its Implications for Organized Jewry

Instability in Saudi Arabia – Caution: Handle with Care

U.S. Foreign Policy in the Middle East After Sadat

The Meaning of the Israeli Elections for the Western Democracies

Rifts in the Arab World

Rifts in the Arab World

A New Report and World Jewry

American Jewish Community Relations in the 1980’s: An Assessment of the 1980-81 NJCRAC Joint Program for Jewish Community Relations

Are American Jews Becoming Conservatives and Should They?

A Preview of the Israeli Elections – 1981

Israeli Jews and the Palestinian Arabs: Three Perspectives

Jewishness in the Soviet Union: A Preliminary Report of the First Independent Empirical Study

The Political Economy of Israel 1948-1980

The Political Economy of Israel 1948:1980

Israeli Administration and Self Rule in the Territories

Journey Through Mount Hebron

Journey Through Mount Hebron

Jewish Religion and Politics in Israel

The Dinosaur and the Housing Problem

The Dinosaur and the Housing Problem

American Jewish Political Activism in the 1980s: Five Dilemnas

The Politics of Centrism: Jews and the 1980 Elections

The Effect of the Defense Budget on Israel’s Economy

The Effect of the Defense Budget on Israel’s Economy

The Future of Conservative Judaism in the United States

Kiryat Shmona: A Look from the Inside

The Movement of Masorti Judaism in Israel

The Movement of Masorti Judaism in Israel

Peace Now

Sharing the Land: The Only Realistic Option

Notes on a Visit to the Soviet Union

Soviet Jewry: It’s Sources of Information and Images of Israel

The National Religious Party: Israel’s Third Party

Back to School: A Look at Israeli Education

Bolstering the Regime from Within

Coping with Inflation: The Law and Payment of Debts

Coping with Inflation: The Law and Payment of Debts

New Settlement Initiatives Across the Green Line

Peace and Politics

The Political Economy of Energy: Iran Complicates the Situation

Self Help or Imposed Beneficence? The Central Problem of Project Renewal

The American Baal Tshuva in Israel

The Knesset – 1 Year Later

Free High School Education Comes to Israel

French Jewry and the French Elections -II

French Jewry and the French Elections – 1

French Jewry and the French Elections – 1

Israel’s Big Three

Where Do We Go From Here?

End of Act 1

The Palestinian Arabs’ Reaction to the Sadat Initiative

The Palestinian Arabs’ Reaction to the Sadat Initiative

Begin’s Political Base – Post Sadat

In Praise of Federacy